Presentation on theme: "HIGHLIGHTS GENDER INSIGHTS IN THE PACIFIC EMERGENCIES GENDER IN HUMANITARIAN ACTION WORKSHOP 12-03-2012 BY LINDA PENNELLS IASC GENCAP ADVISER Acknowledging."— Presentation transcript:
HIGHLIGHTS GENDER INSIGHTS IN THE PACIFIC EMERGENCIES GENDER IN HUMANITARIAN ACTION WORKSHOP 12-03-2012 BY LINDA PENNELLS IASC GENCAP ADVISER Acknowledging collaboration with Vanuatu and Samoa Red Cross Societies, MWCD and UNDP
Session Flow Gender insights into TC Vania in Vanuatu - 2010 Participants’ insights on the Fiji floods– 2012 Gender reflection on the Tuvalu Drought -2011 Gender insights from the Samoa Tsunami -2009 Introducing gender tools for humanitarian action
Gender Insights into TC Vania/Atu Two TCs hit Tafea Province, S Vanuatu, in early 2011 TC Vania (Jan 12-13) and TC Atu (Feb 20-22) Prolonged wind and rain from TC Vania (Cat 1) damage staple and cash crops TC Atu (Cat 4) deepens crop loss TCs piggybacked drought and volcanic acid rain in Tanna, Tafea’s largest island
Women’s participation Few women in: NDMO, TAGs, area councils, many community disaster committees, some NGOs Without women: DRM has only half the energy, skills, solutions Women’s participation is essential as a ‘critical mass’ in: Assessments All DRM mechanisms from NDMO down to community Community disaster committees
WASH Cluster approach attracts donors to step forward (TOR, timely assessment, response plan, strategic use of members’ capacities) NFIs distributed then water systems repaired in 5 months (50+ systems) Lost opportunity – no engagement of women/men to revitalize water user groups – no hygiene, sanitation or O&M - could have built onto RWS and NGO training/facilitation Shortage of women in WASH distribution teams (one only per team)
WASH cont’d Gender analysis warranted: collapsible jerry cans, purification tabs vs filters Good gender practice: Gender-balanced team demonstrate water testing in Tanna communities Cluster post-completion questionnaire shows women as well as men influenced design in some communities VRCS field teams identify/correct Aniwa beneficiary lists: 45 uncounted HHs, mainly widow and single- mother HHs
Agriculture and Food Response revolves around distribution of rice, fast- growing seeds and cuttings. 600+ bags of rice were rain damaged. Others walked. Stakeholder and community consultations suggest that, “women would not let rice get wet and spoil” and their involvement would better insure inclusive equitable and accountable distribution
Agriculture – good practice Distribution of seeds and cuttings familiar to Tafea men & women Livelihoods assessment of Futuna and Aniwa called for balanced support to pandanus handicrafts (women’s income) and fisheries industries (men’s income). Power of ‘kava mail’ – nakamal network facilitates exchange of Middlebush taro for W Tanna coconut
Chiefs close markets Consultation: Tafeo Coop Market (21 women vendors) Reason for closure: “If they see you selling, there will be no rice” Result: Lost income Rotting food Customers forced to buy less-nutritious costly shop food *Sale of kava and Whitesands fish was not interrupted
Protection Risks to children, especially girls, were identified in the Vania Joint Damage Assessment but no formal protection response followed. Violence and neglect data: Tanna Women’s Counseling Centre New domestic violence clients: up more than 300% 2010 (12 months) – 12 2011 (9 months) - 39 More cases of men not paying child maintenance 2010 (12 months) – 14 2011 (9 months) - 39
Protection UNICEF pocket-sized brochure used in WASH distribution included psycho-social messages. One psycho-social stress cited, particularly for women, is failure to meet church donation targets.
Health and Nutrition Action Needed Lenakel Hospital: Due to unrepaired damage of reproductive health unit, post-Vania drop in pre-natal and post- natal consultations, increase in unplanned pregnancies, increase in hospital admissions from bush abortions gone wrong.
Health and Nutrition cont’d Priority not invested in collecting health lessons learned. MoH/WHO do not collect sex-disaggregated data for disaster response (child or adult) or document variances between women and men. Nutrition: Three weeks after cyclone strike was identified as the ‘hunger peak’. Nutrition needs were not fully assessed for timely response (e.g. micro-nutrients, Vit A, iodized salt, breastfeeding). Long-term potential of cluster assessment: evidence to identify an appropriate ‘food basket’ and pre-positioning arrangements. SC discussing research into boy preference and its potential manifestation in emergencies (food, school)
Education MoE took responsibility for repairing schools and waived secondary school fees to prevent student pull-out. EMIS reports total Tafea secondary enrollment in the term following the cyclones as 1139 boys and 1137 girls. This is 47 more boys and 143 more girls than in the corresponding term in 2010. The telling evidence will be in student attendance – figures not yet available.
Questions and Comments Plenary discussion: Vania response On to the Fiji floods – pairs discussion
Gender Insights – Tuvalu Drought No attempt to focus on the most vulnerable: i.e. water and NFIs for all - no extra water for pregnant and lactating women Women’s Division excluded from drought decision- making body Outer island assessment (5 islands) team includes 1 woman and 13 men No gender analysis of root causes of drought and water management practices (i.e. poor guttering care, leaking tanks, wasteful water use)
Gender Insights – Samoa Tsunami Most deaths: children, women and the elderly – assess capacities and vulnerabilities of women, girls, boys, men Preparedness Better vulnerability mapping by community men and women: people living on the fringe of villages (FHHs, freeholders, ostracized families, squatters ) e.g. Ma Nuu Manuia Project C lear distribution criteria and process- full participation of women and men More gender analysis, sex and age disaggregated data and gender indicators in DRR and recovery ( Progress Report: Hyogo and DRM -2011) Better land dispute mechanisms for all, especially women
Gender Insights continued Micro credit interest relief is in place Coordinated mental health mechanism for psycho- social response and skills upgrading in trauma counseling for equal # of men & women Response Ensure equity in shelter and water sharing e.g. community cohesion suffers when some extended families get one fale and others get fales for each of their constituent nuclear families; community water tanks. Experience shows engaging women can assist with both water and shelter equity. Early Recovery Ensure equal benefit. Be pro-active in ensuring men and women fully participate in planning & in livelihoods
Gender Insights – continued More consideration is needed to a Protection Cluster and protection issues: (gaps) Weak capture of domestic violence / GBV Care giver burn-out and unmet PS need American wives advertise ‘come get an orphan’ Involve but do not over-rely on women’s committees, pastors and their wives in times of family trauma Ensure a gender analysis: e.g. boys play dead/burying games; Poutasi teacher reports boys and male teachers able to return to school weeks earlier than girls and female teachers
Best Practices Some good efforts to have a critical mass of women and men in field teams (SRC 60%M-40%W) Samoan diaspora (women and men) contributed to high level of appropriateness in food and NFIs. Still needed, however, is a list of appropriate food and NFIs including drugs, ensuring infant formula does not replace breast milk, food is not expired and items are culturally appropriate. Private sector initiative: tourist fale recovery – vital employment for young men and women (fewer alternatives for female youth)
Gender Resources IASC Gender Marker Tip Sheets: gender analysis questions and tips to help create gender-responsive projects: http://gencap.oneresponse.infohttp://gencap.oneresponse.info Free gender e-training which features gender issues in each humanitarian cluster. Certificate issued for all who complete this interactive training:www.iasc- elearning.org or order a free CD ROM from email@example.com- elearning.org