Presentation on theme: "A hazard in itself is not a disaster.. It has the potential to become one when it happens to populations who have certain vulnerabilities and insufficient."— Presentation transcript:
It has the potential to become one when it happens to populations who have certain vulnerabilities and insufficient capacity to respond to it. The potential or probability of a hazard becoming a disaster is called risk.
Disaster risk reduction / disaster risk management is about avoiding these risks (prevention) or limiting them (preparedness / mitigation), by focusing on a population’s vulnerabilities and capacities.
Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) - areas of focus: 1.Make disaster risk reduction a priority Ensure that disaster risk reduction is a national and a local priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation. 2.Know the risks and take action Identify, assess, and monitor disaster risks – and enhance early warning. 3.Build understanding and awareness Use knowledge, innovation, and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels. 4.Reduce the underlying risk factors (vulnerabilities and exposure) 5. Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all levels by focusing on a population’s vulnerabilities and capacities.
Role ISDR, UNDP, OCHA and CADRI ISDR The coordination body for the implementation of overall disaster risk reduction policy in accordance with the Hyogo Framework for Action Core function: advocacy for disaster risk reduction; international clearinghouse for information on disaster reduction strategies UNDP Support the implementation of disaster risk reduction policy at the country- level Core function: building national capacities for disaster risk management; providing technical expertise to support capacity-building efforts (Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery)
Role ISDR, UNDP, OCHA and CADRI OCHA: strengthening disaster preparedness at all levels: a.Preparedness of OCHA to respond b.Preparedness of the international humanitarian community to respond c.Preparedness of national /regional authorities to respond (in collaboration with UNDP, ISDR and IFRC) CADRI: composed of ISDR, UNDP and OCHA. Set up to build capacity of national governments on disaster risk management strategy and policy
RISK =HAZARD X VULNERABILITY (EXPOSURE) __________________________________ CAPACITY
From a gender perspective : RISK =HAZARD X VULNERABILITY ( identified through gender analysis ) __________________________________________ CAPACITY ( identified through gender analysis, lessons learned, etc. )
In normal language: Identify the nature of the physical hazard, such as the impact’s probability, location and intensity. Determine the human vulnerability to the risk, by identifying exposure and weaknesses. Identify the capacities and available resources for managing and reducing vulnerability. Determine acceptable levels of risk
Disasters affect everyone, but they are not gender neutral: Global statistics: In natural disasters 80% of the victims are women. Men normally form the majority of victims in armed conflicts since they are combatants and have more risks of losing their life.
The risks and vulnerabilities that people face from natural disasters are as much a product of their social situation as their physical environment. Social networks, power relationships, knowledge and skills, gender roles, health, wealth, and location, all affect risk and vulnerability to disasters and the capacity to respond to them. Vulnerabilities and capacities of individuals and social groups evolve over time and determine people’s abilities to cope with disaster and recover from it.
This understanding needs to be applied to the following three areas: Analysing the (possible) impacts of disaster Analysing local capacities to reduce risk and respond to disaster Designing programmes
What are the consequences if gender is not taken into consideration in DRR? Inadequate risk identification and risk assessment Inappropriate policy and programming response, prioritisation and financing of risk at national and community levels Ineffective disaster risk reduction interventions and outcomes Interventions can create or worsen gender inequalities and vulnerabilities.
Risk assessment process from gender perspective Identify the nature of the physical hazard, such as the impact’s location, intensity, and probability. E.g.: Houses built too close to a river/ sea/ mountain slope, etc.: it is often the poor and vulnerable persons who cannot afford to live in safer places.
Identify exposure and weaknesses (vulnerabilities) Roles in society : -Reproductive role of women often make them homebound, which makes them particularly vulnerable in earthquakes and hurricanes. -Cultural norms can prevent women and girls from learning skills such as swimming or climbing, while societal or religious dress codes may be impractical in time of disaster. Economic aspects : poverty may affect the level of education and awareness, leading to less access to information about potential risks. Poverty can lead to lack of safe areas for planting crops and accessing markets. Poverty can also cause bad pre-disaster health conditions. Poverty restricts choice.
Identify exposure and weaknesses (vulnerabilities) Physical safety: -Loss of housing during disaster means that families are often forced to relocate to shelters or move in with relatives or neighbours, where women, girls, boys and men may not be safe. -In the aftermath of disasters women and children are at risk of becoming victims of trafficking, domestic and sexual violence. - Male / female migration during disasters can lead to an increase in unsafe sexual practices for both women and men, and lead to the risk of women being forced into unsafe transactional sex.
Focus on women: what capacities do they have in society? Risk mapping of hazards. Mobilizing communities to prepare for and respond to disasters Assessing damage and impact of disasters Identifying missing community members Agents of change