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Rice planting system in Nepal Arjun Pandey Department of plant and soil science Oklahoma State University.

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Presentation on theme: "Rice planting system in Nepal Arjun Pandey Department of plant and soil science Oklahoma State University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rice planting system in Nepal Arjun Pandey Department of plant and soil science Oklahoma State University

2 Outline Introduction Agriculture in Nepal Rice Planting System SRI and Conventional Method Problems Conclusion

3 Introduction:

4 Background:  Area of Nepal sq. Km.  Total farming Population-65%  23% of total area is the most fertile land where cereal production is mainly concentrated.  Agriculture Contributes to about 33.8% to national GDP.(World Bank,2010)  Provides part and fulltime employment opportunities to 65.5% of its population.  Elevation ranges from 70 m (230 ft) to 8848 m (29,029 ft) above sea level.  Tremendous variation in climate (tropical to temperate) as a result of variation in altitude. There are four main climatic seasons: Spring : March-May Summer : June-August Autumn : September-November Winter : December-February

5 Physiographic Regions and Cropping System Himalayan High mountain Middle mountain Siwalik Terai

6 Agriculture in Nepal  Among agriculture crops rice is main crop, cultivated on nearly 1.55 M Ha of lands.  Total production of rice 2008/09 was 4.3 millions of tons, with average productivity of 2907kg/ha(world average is about 4204kg/ha)

7 Problems of rice cultivation Older generation of seeds High Production cost Low doses of fertilizers Manual/bullock- Based cultivation Fraction of land(small holding=0.24ha) Distribution of land Low Irrigation facility Poor Farmers(% of population below international poverty line of US$1.25 per day, *=55) (Unicef,2010)

8 Rice cultivation system:  Upland rice cultivation:- 9% of total rice cultivation area is under upland.  Lowland rice cultivation:  Major practice  Cultivated 2 times in a year

9 Different methods of rice planting Direct planting- In Nepal it is not practiced yet, and research is going on. Transplanting Two ways of transplanting is popular in Nepal.  Conventional Transplanting  Modern Transplanting(SRI)

10 Conventional Rice Transplanting System Farmers Use more than 60 kg of seeds/ha Transplant very old seedlings(30-45 days) Plants many seedlings 8-10/hill.

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12 Modern Rice Planting System(SRI) System of Rice Intensification-Evolved in Madagascar, over 20-yr period In Nepal introduced in 1998 One seedling per hill.

13 Why SRI ??

14 PRACTICE/PURCHASE COSTS,SRI RICE(RS/HA) COST CONVENTIONAL RICE(RS/HA) DIFFERENCE(RS/H A) SEED NURSERY PREPARATION LAND PREPARATION COMPOST FERTILIZERS TRANSPLANTING IRRIGATION WEEDING PESTICIDE0500 HARVESTING TOTAL COST REVENUE,GRAIN REVENUE,BY PRODUCT TOTAL REVENUE NETPROFIT

15 Five Principles of SRI

16 Comparisons of factor effects: Young seedling 8 days-6.28 t/ha vs. 20 days-3.80 t/ha Water management effect Water control t/ha vs. Flooding t/ha Fertilization Compost-5.49 t/ha vs. NPK fertilizer t/ha Plants per hill effect 1 plant/hill t/ha vs. 3 plants/hill t/ha Spacing effect 30x30cm t/ha vs. 25x25 cm 5.00 t/ha source-Uphoff, 2006

17 Twelve Techniques of SRI

18 Nursery Preparation Uprooting Seedlings Marking the areaPlanting on the spot

19 Intercultural operation

20 Technology Promotion  Leaf Color Chart  Urea Super Granule  Seed Production and Preservation  Alternate Wet and Dry(AWD) irrigation System  Pheromone trap

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22 Conclusion SRI method is found to be more productive than conventional method Main components for higher yield of rice is younger seedlings, fewer seedlings /hill, wider spacing and AWD irrigation Tools and machines supply/availability for making and weeding are every useful for adopting SRI in larger areas

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