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台湾の水稲生産システムの環境影 響および経済評価 Environmental impacts and financial implications of Taiwanese rice cultivation Hung-Chun Lin, Yasuhiro Fukushima Environmental.

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Presentation on theme: "台湾の水稲生産システムの環境影 響および経済評価 Environmental impacts and financial implications of Taiwanese rice cultivation Hung-Chun Lin, Yasuhiro Fukushima Environmental."— Presentation transcript:

1 台湾の水稲生産システムの環境影 響および経済評価 Environmental impacts and financial implications of Taiwanese rice cultivation Hung-Chun Lin, Yasuhiro Fukushima Environmental Systems Engineering Laboratory Department of Environmental Engineering National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan 1

2 2011 日本LCA学会研究発表会 Environmental Systems Engineering Laboratory, NCKU Situation on Taiwan Rice – A main starch source for Taiwanese – 60 kg/person/year Rice industry – GHGs emission – Resource consumption – Less preferable career 2 million ton Imported 99.37% Domestic 0.63% Energy Supply (2009)

3 2011 日本LCA学会研究発表会 Environmental Systems Engineering Laboratory, NCKU Rice Cultivation System Seedling Transplanting Farm Managing Harvesting Plowing and Watering Rice Fertilizer PesticideWater GHGs Seedling Fuel Electricity Machinery -$ +$ 3 Labor

4 2011 日本LCA学会研究発表会 Environmental Systems Engineering Laboratory, NCKU Objective To clarify environmental and economic aspects of rice cultivation in Taiwan 4  Data source – Interview e.g. fertilizer, electricity bill, etc. – Literature review e.g. Irrigation water, GHGs from rice paddy, etc. – Database Bureau of Energy, Taiwan, etc. Ecoinvent, etc.  Impact categories – GHGs (CO 2, CH 4, N 2 O) – Freshwater – Energy

5 2011 日本LCA学会研究発表会 Environmental Systems Engineering Laboratory, NCKU Pencycuron GHGs emission (1/3) A. Chemicals – Fertilizer: (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 Ammonium sulphate, as N, at regional storehouse, Ecoinvent Diuron 5 – Pesticide 1.From database 2.Associated chemical Pencycuron Chemical class: Phenylurea Associated chemical in Ecoinvent: Diuron

6 2011 日本LCA学会研究発表会 Environmental Systems Engineering Laboratory, NCKU 6 GHGs emission (2/3) B. Rice paddy – Measured data C. Seedling Fertilizer Seedling Seed Local data Database

7 2011 日本LCA学会研究発表会 Environmental Systems Engineering Laboratory, NCKU GHGs emission (3/3) D. Power Electricity  Electricity bill (Emission factor: kg-CO 2 equiv./kWh ) Diesel  Farming machinery horsepower x working hour ÷ engine efficiency  Truck Transport lorry t, fleet average, Ecoinvent 7

8 2011 日本LCA学会研究発表会 Environmental Systems Engineering Laboratory, NCKU Resource consumption Freshwater CategoryPurpose IrrigationTo irrigate the rice paddy PesticideTo dilute pesticide SeedlingTo dilute pesticide and fertilizer CategoryPurpose FuelProduce diesel and electricity, operate machines ElectricityPump water Procedure utilities Fertilizer, pesticide Energy 8

9 2011 日本LCA学会研究発表会 Environmental Systems Engineering Laboratory, NCKU Case Study Farming activitiestime/CS Plowing2 Transplanting1 Applying fertilizer4 Applying pesticide4 Harvesting1 Location: Hou-Bi Township, Tainan (southern Taiwan) Temperature: 24.7 ℃ (18~29 ℃ ) Crop season (CS): 2 seasons – 1 st CS: Jan. ~ May – 2 nd CS: Jul.~ Nov. Rainfall: 1809 mm (11.2~445.7mm) Yield: – 1 st CS: 1,080~1,320 kg/fen – 2 nd CS: 780~840 kg/fen 9

10 2011 日本LCA学会研究発表会 Environmental Systems Engineering Laboratory, NCKU Results (1/3) Rice paddy > Power > Chemicals > Seedlings 10 GHGs emission: 1, kg-CO 2 equiv./fen/year

11 2011 日本LCA学会研究発表会 Environmental Systems Engineering Laboratory, NCKU Result (2/3) Resource consumption  Freshwater: 6,740 m 3 -water/fen/year  Energy: 14,977 MJ/fen/year 11

12 2011 日本LCA学会研究発表会 Environmental Systems Engineering Laboratory, NCKU Result (3/3) Financial flow Income: 29,760 − Expenditure: 16,348 13,412 NTD C1: Fertilizer C2: Pesticide C3: Fuel C4: Electricity C5: Plowing C6: Transplanting C7: Spraying (fertilizer) C8: Spraying (pesticide) C9: Harvesting C10: Seedling  Wages > Chemicals > Power > Seedling No.1 Fertilizer (C1) No.2 Plowing (C5) No.3 Electricity (C4) 12

13 2011 日本LCA学会研究発表会 Environmental Systems Engineering Laboratory, NCKU 13 Summary For 1 kg rice – 0.97 kg-CO 2 equiv. – 3.6 m 3 water – 8.1 MJ – 8.8 NTD (cost) For 1 fen rice paddy, 1 year – 1, kg-CO 2 equiv. – 6,740 m 3 water – 14,977 MJ – 13,412 NTD (net income)  How to reduce the environmental impact?  How to increase the income of farmers? Annual income Farmer: 134,120 NTD (10 fen) Laborer: 444,300 NTD 70% less!

14 2011 日本LCA学会研究発表会 Environmental Systems Engineering Laboratory, NCKU Discussion (1/3) Electricity CategoriesWith pumping Without pumping ReductionUnit (/kg-rice) GHGs emission %kg-CO 2 equiv. Energy consumption %MJ Cost %NTD 14

15 2011 日本LCA学会研究発表会 Environmental Systems Engineering Laboratory, NCKU kg-CO 2 equiv. 1 st CS 2 nd CS Discussion (2/3) Comparisons on GHGs emission between 1 st CS, 2 nd CS, fallow period 15  1 st CS: Jan.~May. 2 nd CS: Jul.~Nov.  If we want to make land fallow, which season is better? GHGs emission Water availability

16 2011 日本LCA学会研究発表会 Environmental Systems Engineering Laboratory, NCKU Subsidy for fallow land – 4,500 NTD/fen/CS – Cost for green manure – Given to land owners, but not farmers Wages – 47% of the total expenditure – Different percentage for farmers with machine Discussion (3/3) 16 Green manure

17 2011 日本LCA学会研究発表会 Environmental Systems Engineering Laboratory, NCKU Conclusion (1/2) The major sources – GHGs emission: CH 4 (44%) – Freshwater consumption: Irrigation (>99%) – Energy consumption: Electricity (75%) – Expenditure: Fertilizer (15%) To reduce environmental impacts – Choosing a place with rivers or spring nearby 28%, 75%, and 12% reduction of GHGs emission, energy consumption, and cost of rice, respectively – Making land fallow Food security and farmers’ welfare 17

18 2011 日本LCA学会研究発表会 Environmental Systems Engineering Laboratory, NCKU Conclusion (2/2) To complete the study – Seedling preparation – Indirect emission from electricity 18 Relatively high labor cost – Price of labor Suggestion

19 Thanks for your attention! Hung-Chun Lin 19


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