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Deconstructing the Model Minority Myth

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1 Deconstructing the Model Minority Myth
Diversifying the Asian American and Pacific Islander Experience Maile Kaneko and Jennifer Truong WSCA Conference 2014

2 Agenda Objectives Discuss Model Minority Myth Who are API Students?
API Students in WA State Public Schools Analysis of Data Attitudes Towards Counseling Subgroups - background and implications Interventions and Strategies Voices from the Community (Panel) Race v. ethnicity

3 Objectives Identify historical and social contexts and experiences of a diverse set of Asian Pacific American subgroups Evaluate educational and socioeconomic data for disaggregated Asian American and Pacific Islander subgroups Learn historical, cultural, political, and social contexts impact on the educational experiences of various students Collaborate, share, and discuss strategies for supporting Asian American and Pacific Islander students

4 Model Minority Myth “Proponent of the model minority thesis attributed the supposed success of Asian Americans to their adherence to traditional Asian cultural values and family structures. They argued that Asian Americans were more obedient to authority, respectful to teachers, smart, good at math and science, hardworking, cooperative, well behaved, and quiet. The model minority thesis also suggests that Asian Americans are more successful educationally and economically than other ‘minority’ groups in the United states such as blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans. Thus their pathway to success is viewed as a ‘model’ for other ‘minority’ groups to follow” (Kwon and Au, 2010)

5 Harms of the Model Minority Myth
Denies existence of present discrimination against APA’s as well as effects of past discrimination Masks unique barriers for varied experiences of subgroups (in particular SouthEast Asians and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders) Legitimizes attributes that generalize ability to overcome discrimination to juxtapose other racial groups (CAPAA, 2010)

6 Who are API Students? Asian Indian Bangladeshi Bhutanese Burmese
Cambodian Cham Chamorro Chinese Chuukese Filipino Gillis Islanders Hmong Indonesian Iwo Jiman Japanese Korean Kosraean Laotian Lau Islander Malaysian Maldivian Maori Marshallese Mongolian Native Fijian Native Hawaiian Nauruan Nepalese New Caledonian Niuean Okinawan Pakistani Palauan Papua New Guinean Rapa Nui (Easter Island) Raro Tongan Rotuman Samoan Singaporean Solomon Islanders Sri Lankan Tahitian Taiwanese Thai Tokelauan Tongan Uvea & Futuna Vietnamese Yapese … and more. Daughter Son Survivor Sister Brother Friend Aunt Uncle Grandchild Cousin Future

7 Who are API Students? 47+ ethnicities that speak more than 300 languages and dialects Asians make up 7.2% of WA State Population; NHPI make up .58% 65.5% of Asians and 19.8% of NHPI are Foreign born (CAPAA, 2010; American Community Survey [ACS]; ACS) Photo by: Zamanalnsamt

8 Washington State Demographics Profile – 2000 Census Data
% Foreign Born Median Family Income % Children under 18 below Poverty Level Language other than English Asian 67.2% $54,611 14.1% 74.8% Cambodian 65.8% $34,801 31.8% 91.7% Filipino 65.4% $56,781 6.3% 67.1% Hmong 61.2% $27,955 56.4% 95.2% Laotian 67.4% $44,536 21.1% 91.4% Vietnamese 78% $42,846 24% 92.4% NHPI 17.2% $45,596 18.9% 48.6% Polynesian 16.0% $43,556 17.8% 49.3% Native Hawaiian 2.3% $46,875 6.3 14.5% Samoan 20.2% $39,135 24.4% 69% Tongan 54.5% $65,733 4.1% 80.8% Micronesian 12.1% $48,810 22.9% 48.2% Chamorro 3.4% $51,071 42.8% Profile of Selected Economic Characteristics: 2000 Census 2000 Summary File 4 (SF 4) - Sample Data Profile of Selected Social Characteristics: 2000 Profile of Selected Economic Characteristics: 2000 Census 2000 Summary File 4 (SF 4) - Sample Data; Profile of Selected Social Characteristics: Census 2000 Summary File 4 (SF 4) - Sample Data

9 East Asia & Oceania

10 East Asia

11 Oceania

12 WA State Public Schools
API’s make up 8.1% of school population More than 30% of Asian Americans receive Free/Reduced Price Lunch 14% are enrolled in Transitional Bilingual Instruction Program (TBIP) In 2007, there were 16 school districts that had Asian Americans representing over 10% of their student body (Hune and Takeuchi, 2010)

13 WA State Public Schools, Cont.
District 2007 2012 Seattle 22% 18% Bellevue 26% 31% Tukwila 21% 32% Kent 19% Highline Tacoma 12% 13% Lake WA 15% Federal Way 17% Renton 25% 2007 2012 Issaquah 20% 23% Edmonds 14% North Shore 11% Everett 12% 13% Mukilteo 15% 16% N. Thurston 10% Shoreline 18% Auburn (Hune and Takeuchi, 2010; OSPI, 2014)

14 Education Data

15 Graduation Rates (4-Year Cohort) 2012-2013
(OSPI 2013)

16 Drop-Out Rate (Adj. 4-Year Cohort) 2012-2013
(OSPI 2013)

17 3rd Grade MSP Math (OSPI 2013)

18 Push-Pull Hypothesis Push-Pull Hypothesis: Migration is due to socioeconomic imbalances between regions, certain factors "pushing" persons away from the area of origin, and others "pulling" them to the area of destination Immigration Waves First Wave of Asian Immigrants: 1840s–1930s. One million Asians, most of them young men, was significant in the economic development of the western states and Hawai’i. Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Korean, Asian Indian Second Wave of Asian Immigrants: Post-1965. 1965 Immigration Act Annual quotas for Asian states, priority for family reunification, & preferences for economic visas Third Wave: Southeast Asian Refugees, 1975 and After. U.S. military involvement in Southeast Asia Refugees : persons who do not willingly choose to leave their homelands. One million Vietnamese, Cambodian, Hmong, Mien, and other Laotians arrived between 1975 and 1990 alone (Hune and Takeuchi, 2010; So, 2008)

19 Attitudes Towards Counseling
Asian Americans underutilize counseling and other mental health facilities Stigma, Shame, and Saving Face Feelings of guilt vs. Feelings of shame Shame and “Saving face” - one person reflects on the entire group or family system Frustration, anger, depression, anxiety - “Don’t think about it” Self-reliance Based on legacy of mistrust of outside institutions that have led to victimization of APIs Acculturation and help-seeking behaviors individualism vs. collectivism self-exploration is not collectivistic “Asian American adolescents appear to retain the expectation to assist, support, and respect their family even when exposed to a society that emphasizes adolescent autonomy and independence” - Sue & Sue p 396 -Objectives. We examined rates of mental health–related service use (i.e., any, general medical, and specialty mental health services) as well as subjective satisfaction with and perceived helpfulness of care in a national sample of Asian Americans, with a particular focus on immigration-related factors. Methods. Data were derived from the National Latino and Asian American Study (2002–2003). Results. About 8.6% of the total sample (n=2095) sought any mental health– related services; 34.1% of individuals who had a probable diagnosis sought any services. Rates of mental health–related service use, subjective satisfaction, and perceived helpfulness varied by birthplace and by generation. US-born Asian Americans demonstrated higher rates of service use than did their immigrant counterparts. Third-generation or later individuals who had a probable diagnosis had high (62.6%) rates of service use in the previous 12 months. (ABE-KIM ET.AL. 2007) Abe-Kim et al. (2007), Sue & Sue (2013), Yamashiro & Matsuoka (1997)

20 Attitudes Towards Counseling
As a child, I was taught not to call attention to myself, because an upright nail gets pounded down. I was taught to be helpful and to accommodate the needs of others. I believed that the mature person was loving, kind, and kept their opinions private. - Yabusaki, 2010 (Sue & Sue 2013)

21 East Asian & South Asian Students
Chinese Japanese Korean South Asian Indian Sri Lankan Bangladeshi Bhutanese Maldivian Nepalese Self-control vs. Self-expression Self-control and restraint – one should exercise restraint when experiencing strong emotions. The ability to control emotions is a sign of strength. Ability to resolve psychological problems – One should overcome distress by oneself. Asking others for psychological help is a sign of weakness. One should use one’s inner resources and willpower to resolve psychological problems. Filial Piety – Obligation to family and ancestors Authority figure vs. stranger Model Minority as stressor – Academics & Career (Kim & Park, 2008)

22 Implications & Strategies for School Counselors
Consider students’ levels of acculturation Integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization Family’s generational status Style of Counseling Logical, rational, directive vs. reflective, affective, non-directive Explore perceived expectations and pressures (especially in academics and career choices) from family/community Failure to meet expectations feelings of inadequacy  pressure/psychological stress (Kim & Park, 2008; Sandhu & Madathil, 2008)

23 Southeast Asian Students
Educational Attainment - Bachelor’s Degree or Higher in WA State, ACS) Southeast Asia: Cambodia (Cham, Khmer) Laos (Hmong, Iu Mien, Khmu, Lao) Vietnam (Khmer, Montagnards, Vietnamese) Burma (Karen, Chin) Thailand (Thai) Social/Historical/Economic Context: Language “Involuntary Immigrants” Socioeconomic status Gang activity Familial expectations & cultural norms Cambodian/Khmer 16.1% Filipino 39.6% Hmong 14.5% Laotian 10% Thai 44.5% Vietnamese 24.4% Asian 45.6% Asian Indian 58.4% Chinese 57.3% Taiwanese 75% Japanese 52% Korean 43.2% (Hune and Takeuchi, 2010; Southeast Asia Resource Action Center; American Community Survey )

24 Implications & Strategies for School Counselors
Interdependency & Collectivism Students’ Role as Cultural moderators/mediators Explore perceived expectations (especially in academics and career choice) from family/community Explore gender roles and expectations within family/culture Emphasize strength of Bicultural identity - navigating two (or more) worlds Trauma and secondary trauma (Hune and Takeuchi, 2010)

25 Pacific Islander Students
Polynesian (Native Hawaiian, Samoan, Tongan, Maori, and more) Melanesian (Fijian, Papua New Guinean, Solomon Islander, and more) Micronesian (Chamorro, Marshallese, Palauan, Kosraen, Chuukese, Yapese, and more) Language Socioeconomic status Multigenerational homes US Territories & Formal Association Values: Collectivistic Respect for Elders: Familial expectations & cultural norms Educational Attainment - Bachelor’s Degree or Higher in WA State, ACS) NHPI 11.3% Native Hawaiian 16.2% Samoan 8.0% Tongan 15.4% Micronesian 8.3% Chamorro Melanesian 18.1% Fijian Marshallese 1.4% Asian 45.6%

26 Implications & Strategies for School Counselors
Explore and recognize importance of family & collectivist decision making Acknowledge role of religion Connect students to community organizations & community work Explore gender roles and expectations within family/culture Advocacy for socioeconomic, immigration, and language systems of support

27 2013 Legislative Recommendation
The Educational Opportunity Gap Oversight and Accountability Committee (EOGOAC)’s Recommendation #5: Provide tools for deeper data analysis and disaggregation of student demographic data to inform instructional strategies to close the opportunity gap. The EOGOAC recommends that the race category Asian be disaggregated into the following categories: Cambodian, Chinese, Filipino, Hmong, Indian, Indonesian, Japanese, Korean, Laotian, Malaysian, Pakistani, Singaporean, Taiwanese, Thai, Vietnamese, and Other Asian. (CAPAA, 2013)

28 Interventions & Strategies
Family/ Community School/ Department Student Empowerment: Acting With Family Partnership/ Community Collaboration Student Empowerment Empowerment: Acting With Advocacy: Acting On Behalf Student Advocacy Family Advocacy Systems Advocacy Microlevel Macrolevel (Modified from Lewis, Arnold, House & Toporek, 2003)

29 References American Community Survey. Dp02: selected social characteristics in the United States American Community Survey. Dp02: selected economic characteristics in the United States. Abe-Kim, J., Takeuchi, D.T., Hong, S., Zane, N., Sue, S., Spencer, M., Appel, H., Nicdao, E., & Alegria, M. (2007). Use of mental health-related services among immigrant and US-born Asian Americans: Results from the National Latino and Asian American Study. American Journal of Public Health, 97 (1), Commission on Asian Pacific American Affairs [CAPAA] The state of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Washington. Olympia, WA: CAPAA. Educational Opportunity Gap Oversight and Accountability Committee [EOGOAC] Recommendations from the 2014 annual report. Hune, S. and D. Takeuchi. (2008). Asian Americans in Washington State: Closing their hidden achievement gaps. A report submitted to The Washington State Commission on Asian Pacific American Affairs. Seattle, WA: University of Washington. Kim, B. & Park, Y. (2008). East and Southeast Asian Americans. In Garrett McAuliffe & Associates (Ed.), Culturally alert counseling:A comprehensive introduction (pp ). Los Angeles: Sage Publications. Kwon, H. & Au, W. (2010). Model minority myth. In E.W. Chen & G.J. Yoo (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Asian American issues today: Volume 1 (pp ). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC. Lewis, Arnold, House & Toporek Advocacy competencies. Accessed at Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI). (2013). Graduation and dropout statistics annual report (Data file). Retrieved from Sandhu, D.S. & Madathil, J. (2008). South Asian Americans. In Garrett McAuliffe & Associates (Ed.), Culturally alert counseling:A comprehensive introduction (pp ). Los Angeles: Sage Publications. Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2013). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice (6th ed.). New York: John Wiley and Sons. U.S. Census Bureau (2014). American Community Survey : Race. Retrieved February 8, 2014, from Yamashiro, G., & Matsuoka, J. K. (1997). Help-Seeking among Asian and Pacific Americans: A multiperspective analysis. Social Work, 42(2),

30 Panel

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