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 Maile Kaneko and Jennifer Truong WSCA Conference 2014 Deconstructing the Model Minority Myth Diversifying the Asian American and Pacific Islander Experience.

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Presentation on theme: " Maile Kaneko and Jennifer Truong WSCA Conference 2014 Deconstructing the Model Minority Myth Diversifying the Asian American and Pacific Islander Experience."— Presentation transcript:

1  Maile Kaneko and Jennifer Truong WSCA Conference 2014 Deconstructing the Model Minority Myth Diversifying the Asian American and Pacific Islander Experience

2 Agenda  Objectives  Discuss Model Minority Myth  Who are API Students?  API Students in WA State Public Schools  Analysis of Data  Attitudes Towards Counseling  Subgroups - background and implications  Interventions and Strategies  Voices from the Community (Panel)

3 Objectives Identify historical and social contexts and experiences of a diverse set of Asian Pacific American subgroups Evaluate educational and socioeconomic data for disaggregated Asian American and Pacific Islander subgroups Learn historical, cultural, political, and social contexts impact on the educational experiences of various students Collaborate, share, and discuss strategies for supporting Asian American and Pacific Islander students

4 Model Minority Myth “Proponent of the model minority thesis attributed the supposed success of Asian Americans to their adherence to traditional Asian cultural values and family structures. They argued that Asian Americans were more obedient to authority, respectful to teachers, smart, good at math and science, hardworking, cooperative, well behaved, and quiet. The model minority thesis also suggests that Asian Americans are more successful educationally and economically than other ‘minority’ groups in the United states such as blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans. Thus their pathway to success is viewed as a ‘model’ for other ‘minority’ groups to follow” (Kwon and Au, 2010)

5 Harms of the Model Minority Myth 1.Denies existence of present discrimination against APA’s as well as effects of past discrimination 2.Masks unique barriers for varied experiences of subgroups (in particular SouthEast Asians and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders) 3.Legitimizes attributes that generalize ability to overcome discrimination to juxtapose other racial groups (CAPAA, 2010)

6 Who are API Students? Asian Indian Bangladeshi Bhutanese Burmese Cambodian Cham Chamorro Chinese Chuukese Filipino Gillis Islanders Hmong Indonesian Iwo Jiman Japanese Korean Kosraean Laotian Lau Islander Malaysian Maldivian Maori Marshallese Mongolian Native Fijian Native Hawaiian Nauruan Nepalese New Caledonian Niuean Okinawan Pakistani Palauan Papua New Guinean Rapa Nui (Easter Island) Raro Tongan Rotuman Samoan Singaporean Solomon Islanders Sri Lankan Tahitian Taiwanese Thai Tokelauan Tongan Uvea & Futuna Vietnamese Yapese … and more.

7 Who are API Students?  47+ ethnicities that speak more than 300 languages and dialects  Asians make up 7.2% of WA State Population; NHPI make up.58%  65.5% of Asians and 19.8% of NHPI are Foreign born (CAPAA, 2010; American Community Survey [ACS]; ACS) Photo by: Zamanalnsamt

8 % Foreign Born Median Family Income % Children under 18 below Poverty Level Language other than English Asian67.2%$54, %74.8% Cambodian65.8%$34, %91.7% Filipino65.4%$56,7816.3%67.1% Hmong61.2%$27, %95.2% Laotian67.4%$44, %91.4% Vietnamese78%$42,84624%92.4% NHPI17.2%$45, %48.6% Polynesian16.0%$43, %49.3% Native Hawaiian2.3%$46, % Samoan20.2%$39, %69% Tongan54.5%$65,7334.1%80.8% Micronesian12.1%$48, %48.2% Chamorro3.4%$51, %42.8% Profile of Selected Economic Characteristics: 2000 Census 2000 Summary File 4 (SF 4) - Sample Data; Profile of Selected Social Characteristics: 2000 Census 2000 Summary File 4 (SF 4) - Sample Data Washington State DemographicsProfile – 2000 Census Data

9 East Asia & Oceania

10 East Asia

11 Oceania

12 WA State Public Schools API’s make up 8.1% of school population More than 30% of Asian Americans receive Free/Reduced Price Lunch 14% are enrolled in Transitional Bilingual Instruction Program (TBIP) In 2007, there were 16 school districts that had Asian Americans representing over 10% of their student body (Hune and Takeuchi, 2010)

13 WA State Public Schools, Cont. District Seattle22%18% Bellevue26%31% Tukwila21%32% Kent18%19% Highline21%19% Tacoma12%13% Lake WA15%19% Federal Way15%17% Renton25%26% Issaquah20%23% Edmonds14% North Shore11%14% Everett12%13% Mukilteo15%16% N. Thurston13%10% Shoreline18%15% Auburn11%10% (Hune and Takeuchi, 2010; OSPI, 2014)

14  Education Data

15 Graduation Rates (4-Year Cohort) (OSPI 2013)

16 Drop-Out Rate (Adj. 4-Year Cohort) (OSPI 2013)

17 3 rd Grade MSP Math (OSPI 2013)

18 Push-Pull Hypothesis Push-Pull Hypothesis: Migration is due to socioeconomic imbalances between regions, certain factors "pushing" persons away from the area of origin, and others "pulling" them to the area of destination Immigration Waves ● First Wave of Asian Immigrants: 1840s–1930s. ○ One million Asians, most of them young men, was significant in the economic development of the western states and Hawai’i. ○ Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Korean, Asian Indian ● Second Wave of Asian Immigrants: Post ○ 1965 Immigration Act ○ Annual quotas for Asian states, priority for family reunification, & preferences for economic visas ● Third Wave: Southeast Asian Refugees, 1975 and After. ○ U.S. military involvement in Southeast Asia ○ Refugees : persons who do not willingly choose to leave their homelands. ○ One million Vietnamese, Cambodian, Hmong, Mien, and other Laotians arrived between 1975 and 1990 alone (Hune and Takeuchi, 2010; So, 2008)

19 Attitudes Towards Counseling Asian Americans underutilize counseling and other mental health facilities Stigma, Shame, and Saving Face  Feelings of guilt vs. Feelings of shame  Shame and “Saving face” - one person reflects on the entire group or family system Frustration, anger, depression, anxiety - “Don’t think about it” Self-reliance  Based on legacy of mistrust of outside institutions that have led to victimization of APIs Acculturation and help-seeking behaviors Abe-Kim et al. (2007), Sue & Sue (2013), Yamashiro & Matsuoka (1997)

20 Attitudes Towards Counseling As a child, I was taught not to call attention to myself, because an upright nail gets pounded down. I was taught to be helpful and to accommodate the needs of others. I believed that the mature person was loving, kind, and kept their opinions private. - Yabusaki, 2010 (Sue & Sue 2013)

21 East Asian & South Asian Students Self-control vs. Self-expression  Self-control and restraint – one should exercise restraint when experiencing strong emotions. The ability to control emotions is a sign of strength.  Ability to resolve psychological problems – One should overcome distress by oneself. Asking others for psychological help is a sign of weakness. One should use one’s inner resources and willpower to resolve psychological problems. Filial Piety – Obligation to family and ancestors  Authority figure vs. stranger Model Minority as stressor – Academics & Career East Asian Chinese Japanese Korean South Asian Indian Sri Lankan Bangladeshi Bhutanese Maldivian Nepalese (Kim & Park, 2008)

22 Implications & Strategies for School Counselors  Consider students’ levels of acculturation  Integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization  Family’s generational status  Style of Counseling  Logical, rational, directive vs. reflective, affective, non-directive  Explore perceived expectations and pressures (especially in academics and career choices) from family/community  Failure to meet expectations  feelings of inadequacy  pressure/psychological stress (Kim & Park, 2008; Sandhu & Madathil, 2008)

23 Southeast Asian Students Southeast Asia:  Cambodia (Cham, Khmer)  Laos (Hmong, Iu Mien, Khmu, Lao)  Vietnam (Khmer, Montagnards, Vietnamese)  Burma (Karen, Chin)  Thailand (Thai) Social/Historical/Economic Context: Language “Involuntary Immigrants” Socioeconomic status Gang activity Familial expectations & cultural norms Educational Attainment - Bachelor’s Degree or Higher in WA State, ACS) Cambodian/Khmer16.1% Filipino39.6% Hmong14.5% Laotian10% Thai44.5% Vietnamese24.4% Asian45.6% Asian Indian58.4% Chinese57.3% Taiwanese75% Japanese52% Korean43.2% (Hune and Takeuchi, 2010; Southeast Asia Resource Action Center; American Community Survey )

24 Implications & Strategies for School Counselors  Interdependency & Collectivism  Students’ Role as Cultural moderators/mediators  Explore perceived expectations (especially in academics and career choice) from family/community  Explore gender roles and expectations within family/culture  Emphasize strength of Bicultural identity - navigating two (or more) worlds  Trauma and secondary trauma (Hune and Takeuchi, 2010)

25 Pacific Islander Students Pacific Islanders:  Polynesian (Native Hawaiian, Samoan, Tongan, Maori, and more)  Melanesian (Fijian, Papua New Guinean, Solomon Islander, and more)  Micronesian (Chamorro, Marshallese, Palauan, Kosraen, Chuukese, Yapese, and more) Language Socioeconomic status Multigenerational homes US Territories & Formal Association Values: Collectivistic Respect for Elders: Familial expectations & cultural norms Educational Attainment - Bachelor’s Degree or Higher in WA State, ACS) NHPI11.3% Native Hawaiian16.2% Samoan8.0% Tongan15.4% Micronesian8.3% Chamorro8.0% Melanesian18.1% Fijian18.1% Marshallese1.4% Asian45.6%

26 Implications & Strategies for School Counselors  Explore and recognize importance of family & collectivist decision making  Acknowledge role of religion  Connect students to community organizations & community work  Explore gender roles and expectations within family/culture  Advocacy for socioeconomic, immigration, and language systems of support

27 2013 Legislative Recommendation The Educational Opportunity Gap Oversight and Accountability Committee (EOGOAC)’s Recommendation #5:  Provide tools for deeper data analysis and disaggregation of student demographic data to inform instructional strategies to close the opportunity gap.  The EOGOAC recommends that the race category Asian be disaggregated into the following categories: Cambodian, Chinese, Filipino, Hmong, Indian, Indonesian, Japanese, Korean, Laotian, Malaysian, Pakistani, Singaporean, Taiwanese, Thai, Vietnamese, and Other Asian. (CAPAA, 2013)

28 Interventions & Strategies Empowerment: Acting With Advocacy: Acting On Behalf MicrolevelMacrolevel Student Family/ Community School/ Department Student Empowerment Student Advocacy Family Partnership/ Community Collaboration Empowerment: Acting With Family Advocacy Systems Advocacy (Modified from Lewis, Arnold, House & Toporek, 2003)

29 References American Community Survey. Dp02: selected social characteristics in the United States American Community Survey. Dp02: selected economic characteristics in the United States. Abe-Kim, J., Takeuchi, D.T., Hong, S., Zane, N., Sue, S., Spencer, M., Appel, H., Nicdao, E., & Alegria, M. (2007). Use of mental health- related services among immigrant and US-born Asian Americans: Results from the National Latino and Asian American Study. American Journal of Public Health, 97 (1), Commission on Asian Pacific American Affairs [CAPAA] The state of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Washington. Olympia, WA: CAPAA. Educational Opportunity Gap Oversight and Accountability Committee [EOGOAC] Recommendations from the 2014 annual report. Hune, S. and D. Takeuchi. (2008). Asian Americans in Washington State: Closing their hidden achievement gaps. A report submitted to The Washington State Commission on Asian Pacific American Affairs. Seattle, WA: University of Washington. Kim, B. & Park, Y. (2008). East and Southeast Asian Americans. In Garrett McAuliffe & Associates (Ed.), Culturally alert counseling:A comprehensive introduction (pp ). Los Angeles: Sage Publications. Kwon, H. & Au, W. (2010). Model minority myth. In E.W. Chen & G.J. Yoo (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Asian American issues today: Volume 1 (pp ). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC. Lewis, Arnold, House & Toporek Advocacy competencies. Accessed at Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI). (2013). Graduation and dropout statistics annual report (Data file). Retrieved from Sandhu, D.S. & Madathil, J. (2008). South Asian Americans. In Garrett McAuliffe & Associates (Ed.), Culturally alert counseling:A comprehensive introduction (pp ). Los Angeles: Sage Publications. Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2013). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice (6th ed.). New York: John Wiley and Sons. U.S. Census Bureau (2014). American Community Survey : Race. Retrieved February 8, 2014, from Yamashiro, G., & Matsuoka, J. K. (1997). Help-Seeking among Asian and Pacific Americans: A multiperspective analysis. Social Work, 42(2),

30  Panel


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