Presentation on theme: "Vietnam War U.S. Involvement. Vietnam War 1954-civil war ended between communist North Vietnam under Ho Chi Minh and weak neutral government in south."— Presentation transcript:
Vietnam War 1954-civil war ended between communist North Vietnam under Ho Chi Minh and weak neutral government in south Vietnam 1956-war begins again and by 1960 the south Vietnam forces were confined to the cities
Vietnam War 1960-confilict spreads to Laos—2 sides in Laos: one U.S. and other communist 1961- U.S. sign an agreement creating a coalition government in Laos 1961- May- Kennedy sends 400 Green Berets to help train south Vietnamese in guerilla war fare-it fails
Vietnam War 1961-August- U.S sends 600 green berets and helicopters 1962- South Vietnam hold their own in battles 1963-Vietcong emerge from jungle and chew up inept south Vietnamese
Vietnam War Without massive American intervention the war would be lost
Tonkin Gulf August 2, 1964- American destroyer “Maddox” claimed to be attacked by communist patrol boat in Tonkin Gulf, off the coast of North Vietnam August 4- Maddox and another ship, “C Turner Joy” claimed to have been attacked-neither ship saw enemy vessel or suffered any damage. Johnson ordered air raids against torpedo boats and oil storage tanks
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Johnson asked and got more power when congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Gave the president the authority to take the nation to war without congressional approval Article 1 of constitution says congress has that power 1973- congress placed restriction on the resolution
More trouble in Vietnam Spring 1965-South Vietnam regime had completely lost control of the countryside and huddled in the cities
More Involvement Presidential advisor said without American intervention South Vietnam government would collapse Johnson decides to get involved deeper
Vietcong Attacks Feb 7, 1965- Vietcong raids camp of American military advisers Killing 8, wounding 100 The raid gives Johnson excuse to order air strikes
More Involvement April 1965- 35,000 American troops June-doubled 2 years – 500,000 troops 20,000 deaths
Guerrilla war Vietnam was a guerrilla war Every village as a potential battleground 150,000 civilians died annually
Agent Orange / Napalm In in effort to take away Vietcong hiding places – American planes dropped Napalm (a jellied gasoline that explodes on contact) and Agent Orange (a chemical that strips leaves from trees and shrubs).
Unpopular Three causes that made the Vietnam War to be the most unpopular in U.S. history.
T.V., Cost, Lies Television- First time Americans could see a child running down a street of thatch-covered house her clothes aflame. LIES - Government Falsehood- Statement contradicted one another: reported only 103,000 Vietcong and suffered 79,000 casualties-Jan1,1966 237,000 Vietcong. Cost- Every Vietcong communist killed cost the U.S. $322,000
Protest “New Left”- Antiwar movement by college students and intellectuals. Beginning in 1964 and Berkeley, Cal. Students wreaked havoc at American universities— called for “non- negotiated peace” demand and class disruption.
Non-violence April 1967- 125,000 students surged through the streets of New York to the United Nation building to ask the U.N. to intervene. October 1967- 75,000 descended on the Pentagon and blocked the building entrance in a massive act of non-violent disobedience.
Discontent Only 29% of the American people thought the President was doing a good job. Burning of draft cards gesture of opposition of the war. “New Left” destroyed itself by its violent methods that antagonized everyone else in the country.
Tet Offensive Jan. 1968-Tet is the Vietnamese New Year Vietcong made a surprising move and came down on every city of substantial size in South Vietnam and dozens of American bases Thousands of guerrillas enter the hear of Saigon, captured the American Embassy for 6 hours City was leveled by US bombers to regain control of cities
The Truth Tet offensive demonstrated that in 3 years of war, the Vietcong was still a military power Also demonstrated that the Vietnamese people had turned against their government Thousands of peasants must have known about the moves of the Vietcong forces yet the government knew nothing
Vietnam Withdraw Nixon and Kissinger dictated a final withdraw of Vietnam. It was clear the war could not be won and its continuance hampered negotiation elsewhere in the world. It was important that the withdraw not appear to be a surrender.
Vietnam Pull-out Peace talks opened up in Paris in 1968 Vietcong demanded a role in the gov. South Vietnam military leaders in Saigon had little popular support to stay in power had to keep fighting US to win the war had to send million of troops to Southeast Asia To withdraw was to confess that the tens of thousands of lives lost in Vietnam had been lost for nothing
U.S. Had 3 Choices 1.Continue the war at the present level-- lead nowhere 2.Pull out quickly and let the South Vietnamese take care of themselves-- cause political reaction at home 3.Begin a slow pull out, while trying to negotiate a settlement Nixon chose the third---allowing South Vietnamese to fight on the ground and US forces to supply air power
1970 March 18-a right wing general seized control of the government in Cambodia North Vietnamese troops moved in the defense-less country April 27-Nixon ordered combined American and South Vietnam troops to remove the Vietcong in Cambodia Students take to the street smashing everything in sight
End of Vietnam Kissinger and North Vietnamese finally come to terms: U.S. agreed to permit the North Vietnam army to remain in South Vietnam after cease-fire Nixon calls is “peace with honor” Help Nixon get re-elected
More Trouble in Vietnam December-Nixon unleashes new B-52 attacks on the North because of haggling over details at peace talk Bombing causes world outcry but it works Final cease-fire was signed on Jan. 27, 1973
The Real End Neither side obey peace settlement Nixon orders air raids over Cambodia August 15, 1973-Congress passed resolution for ceasing all American military activity in S.E. Asia
Vietnam Falls Spring 1975-Communist mounted a massive attack April 30 communist forces force Saigon South Vietnam to surrender