1950 President Truman gives $10 million in aid to the French fighting the communist Vietnamese forces led by Ho Chi Minh 1954 French lose the war, Vietnam split in half at 17 th parallel. North controlled by communist leader Ho Chi Minh United States becomes the main supporter of South Vietnam
1961 Kennedy sends thousands of military "advisors- troops/military " to South Vietnam (fear of losing S. Vietnam to communists “ Domino Theory”. 1963 Sixty United States “advisors” killed in action 1964 Congress passes the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution - giving President Johnson authority to use Unlimited military in Vietnam 1965 U.S. begins bombing of North Vietnam
1967 President Johnson up scales (also called; Escalation) U.S. ground troops in Vietnam to 500,000 Young men (19-21 yrs old) drafted Soldiers did one year "tour of duty" U.S. uses chemical warfare such as napalm and Agent Orange(herbicide) Advanced U.S. weaponry does little versus guerilla warfare tactics of the Vietcong (South Vietnamese loyal to communist) 1968 Vietcong launch the Tet Offensive and invade the South Reporting of the My Lai- Massacre (murder of 400 Vietnamese civilians) Increase of anti-war protest back home, lowers morale among U.S. troops.
Agent Orange is the code name for a powerful herbicide and defoliant used by the US to clear areas controlled by the VC Unfortunately, the defoliant caused serious harm to the health of exposed Vietnamese and American soldiers
Napalm, or jellied gasoline, is a flammable liquid fuel weapon first used in World War I by the Germans The Americans used it extensively in Vietnam “Napalm is the most terrible pain you can imagine," said Kim Puc known from a famous Vietnam War photograph
Additional NOTES: Credibility Gap -2 different sides of the story being Presented to the public. Government view vs public view(what the media is saying to the people) And People begin mistrusting what the government was Saying 1969 New President Nixon starts to withdraw troops and promises “peace with honor ” Begins Vietnamization ( gradual withdrawl of U.S. troops from Vietnam)
1970 Nixon orders invasion and bombings of Cambodia, attacking supply lines (called Ho Chi Minh Trail )
1971 New York Times v. the United States New York Times newspaper wanted to publised Pentagon papers on U.S. policy in Vietnam. Federal government tried to stop publication because of security reasons Supreme Court ruled in favor of the New York times – victory for freedom of the press.
1973 War Powers Act Reverses the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution President can only send troops into combat for 60-90 days without approval from Congress. Cease-fire signed with North Vietnam; U.S. agrees to pull troops out in 60 days POW exchange
1975 South Vietnam invaded by North Vietnam Communist take over a united Vietnam April 30, 1975 – U.S. evacuates personnel from its embassy in Saigon the war is over
Tinker vs. Des Moines(1969)- students have right to free expression New Jersey vs. TLO(1985)-students rights are limited in schools; -lessons Tinker decision and gives schools more authority over students
Veronia School District vs. Acton(1995)- male athlete refuses to participate in random drug testing to play a sport. -Court ruled student does not have same rights to privacy in school and school has right to random drug testing(10 th Amendment).