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ADAPTING TO NEW ECONOMIES Chapter 7. COLONIALISM AND RESOURCE APPROPRIATION relationship between non- Aboriginal and Aboriginal in BC revolved around.

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Presentation on theme: "ADAPTING TO NEW ECONOMIES Chapter 7. COLONIALISM AND RESOURCE APPROPRIATION relationship between non- Aboriginal and Aboriginal in BC revolved around."— Presentation transcript:

1 ADAPTING TO NEW ECONOMIES Chapter 7

2 COLONIALISM AND RESOURCE APPROPRIATION relationship between non- Aboriginal and Aboriginal in BC revolved around exploitation and appropriation of natural resources fur trade o lost control of trade o new lifestyle of farmer introduced o rights of land denied o control of land and resources destroyed by laws of government

3 loss of fishing rights o law passed for “ food fishing ” only o lost traditional and customary rights to fishing resources o ownership to industrial firms  First Nations as employees struggle to regain control of traditional land and resources continues in conflict o needs of market economy supersede those of Aboriginal land title and resources

4 FISHING FOR A LIVING 1880 – 1970s primary industries were major industries in BC o First Nations men and women as employees o supplied bulk of labour force for fishers and canneries  recruited as family units 1890s allies with non-Aboriginals in trade union in fishing industry o critical strike in 1900  demonstrated labour force of diverse cultural background could work together  established employers had to share some profits with workers  prior to strike, fish processing firms had almost complete control of terms of employment and pricing

5 until 1930s labour unions included both First Nations and non-Aboriginals o First Nations fishers chose to join rather than organize themselves o finally in conflict when unions failed to develop a united policy of recognizing First Nations rights and title 1931 Haida and Tsimshian commercial fishermen formed Native Brotherhood of British Columbia o for recognition of Aboriginal rights in hunting, fishing, trapping, and off-reserve logging o Sisterhood – led struggle for better working conditions and wages for women in canning

6 in role as labour brokers, some First Nations leaders able to accumulate wealth and higher social position o able to purchase own motor boats and control labour supply  some unable to do so because government regulations prevented them from borrowing money from banks  driven out by increasing operation costs Euro-Cdns under different set of rules o fish companies maintained control through monopolies o most workers had to work in different industries  had to collectively organize – trade unions

7 WORKING IN AGRICULTURE common false assumption of colonization is that agriculture is the hallmark of civilization – agriculture shows more advanced society o government and missionaries determined to make First Nations into farmers  most coastal farmers had little arable land Interior First Nations tried to farm o discriminatory laws favoured settlers o agricultural interests displaced people from territories o formed important segment of workforce

8 large differences between First Nations resource-gathering and Euro-Cdn farming o First Nations wide variety of plants and animals  farmers limited crops and livestock o First Nations needed larger space  farmers in one place year-round  farming more labour intensive principal resources in farming – land and water o First Nations denied access to both o settlers could pre-empt land acres  prohibited from taking land that were burial sites, First Nations villages or cultivated fields  often ignored  First Nations tried to seek justice but legal system against them

9 people in despair o survivors of epidemics finding land disappearing o animal habitats gone o salmon run failed (1879) First Nations in agriculture o subsistence farming  provide food for family o commercial farming  few areas – Cowichan Valley, Fraser Valley, Okanagan  difficult to succeed  restricted to land reserves  no access to water irrigation o couldn ’ t get water licence  could make more money as labourer than owner o farm labourers  seasonal work suited lifestyle

10 LABOURING ON HOP FARMS hop industry one of first agriculture to hire large numbers of First Nations as seasonal workers o flowers ripened late August-September o plantations required hundreds of workers  depended on First Nations until mechanization hundreds families to hop farms usually after salmon canning o more than extra income – social gathering

11 RANCHING cattle ranching in interior since 1860s o Okanagan Valley, Nicola Valley, Cariboo, Chilcotin country fit First Nations lifestyle – already expert with horses some First Nations successful owners, but few o one – Chief Johnny Chillihitzia (Okanagan)  strong leader for interior people in politics Thomas family in Peace River o had to give up Indian status and Treaty (8) rights in order to pre-empt land

12 IMPACT OF THE NEW ECONOMIES capitalist economy transformed First Nations economic and social structures o became wage labourers o changed from collective, independent production to dependent, single family subsistence had to move beyond local regions to work o seasonal o disastrous result – smallpox epidemic 1862 o difficult choices – stay at home on reserves and communities or more to urban centre for more economic and educational opportunities  population decline in rural reserves

13 family changes o no longer families working together o roles of men and women diverge  men resource gather, women processing or stay at home women o primary role in processing food for family, but demands of jobs put pressure on production o traditional diet changed to Euro-Cdn  spend cash at grocery store, because less time in food production


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