Presentation on theme: "Recruitment and selection. Recruitment and Selection Recruitment The process by which a sufficient number of suitable candidates are made available from."— Presentation transcript:
Recruitment and Selection Recruitment The process by which a sufficient number of suitable candidates are made available from which management may choose Selection The process by which individuals in a pool are assessed, using one, or a variety of methods, according to their suitability to join the organisation in the stated capacity
Recruitment and selection process I. 1.Is there a vacancy? Do we need to replace? Does the job need redesigning or regrading? 2.Analyse the job Job description Person specification 3.Attracting applicants Internal v external Advertising Consultants Recruitment
Recruitment and selection process II. 4. Screening applicants Selecting applicants for first interview 5. First interview Selection tests Shortlisting 6. Short list interview Decision 7. Job offer Agree terms and conditions of employment Check references Starting date 8. Induction Selection
Job analysis in the recruitment and selection process Job description (describes the job) Possible pro forma. Job title: Location: Reporting to: Supervising: Liaison - internal, - external Purpose Responsibilities – general, -specific Key result areas Resources Limitations Terms and relations Prospects Person specification (describes the attributes of a competent postholder) Seven point plan (Alec Rodger) Physical make-up Attainments General intelligence Specialised attitudes Interests Disposition Circumstances Five point plan (J Munro Fraser) Impact on other people Acquired qualifications Innate abilities Motivation Adjustments
Sources of recruitment Internal Transfers /promotions Personal recommendations – bounties Waiting list – potential employee register External Careers Service Job Centres, PER Schools, colleges, universites Private employment agencies Management selection consultants Professional institutes Trade unions Casual applicants Advertising
Aims of recruitment advertising 1) Locate and attract suitable candidates -- reader to practise self selection and self elimination 2) Inform readers about the company, job, type of person required 3) Stimulate action on the part of the reader 4) Facilitate future recruitment 5) Achieve 1-5 within an acceptable expenditure figure
Recruitment What to say Heading Word to attract Body copy Most attractive features of job Size and nature of the company’s business Type of applicant required It needs to be factual, relevant and unambiguous Salary and location Action required from reader How to say it Layout and position of advert - Use of space illustrations, graphics etc Company personality - Logo, style Where to say it Cost Most appropriate media Effectiveness of media Frequency and timing of publishing
Selection tools The ‘classic trio’ Application forms Interviews References Additional methods Biodata Psychometric tests Group exercises Work sampling Simulation exercises ‘Any port in a storm’ Graphology Astrology Reading palms/bumps Polygraph Ordeal by social event
Selection techniques 1. Application form 2. Psychological tests 3. Group selection methods 4. Interview 5. Medical exam 6. Reference 7. Assessment centre 8. Graphology These each need to satisfy the criteria of: Validity Does it measure what it sets out to measure? Reliability Does it give the same result, no matter where, when or by whom it is given?
The application form This will provide evidence of: Biographical data and personal circumstances Career pattern and attainments Powers of self expression Range and depth of interests Intelligence and special attitudes Behaviour patterns and preferences
The interview ‘A conversation with purpose’ Selection interviews aim to PREDICT and AID DECISION MAKING. General approaches Biographical (65%) Problem solving (25%) Stress (10%) Strategies Frank and friendly Conspiratorial Joint problem solving Stress Sweet and sour Tell and sell Tell and listen
Interviews – Research criticisms (The McGill University Studies, Webster) Decisions are made in the first FOUR minutes The APPLICATION FORM is a good predictor INTERVIEWER BEHAVIOUR ‘GIVES AWAY’ the decision If accepted …. Interviewer warm and positive If rejected …. Interviewer negative and quiet After the initial decision, interviewer seeks CONFIRMATORY EVIDENCE UNFAVOURABLE EVIDENCE counts more than favourable evidence Interviewers develop a STEREOTYPE of the ‘good’ worker
How can we improve the interview? (Rowan Bayne) Better job analysis Interviewer guides Note taking Continued validation studies to give feedback to test predictions Training – in decision making as well as questioning technique Meditation techniques to produce a ‘calm alert’ state
Interviewing check list The seven point plan I. 1) Physical make-up Has he any defects of health or physique that may be of occupational importance? How agreeable are his appearance, his bearing and his speech. 2) Attainments What type of education has he had? How well has he done educationally? What occupational training and experience has he had already? How ell has he done occupationally? 3) General intelligence How much general intelligence can he display? How much general intelligence does he ordinarily display? 4) Special attitudes Has he any marked mechanical aptitude? Manualdexterity? Facility in the use of words? Or figures? Talent for drawing? Or music?
The seven point plan II. 5) Interests To what extent are his interests intellectual? Practical-constructional? Physically- active? Social? Artistic? 6) Disposition How acceptable does he make himself to other people? Does he influence others? Is he steady and dependable? Is he self-reliant? 7) Circumstances What are his domestic circumstances? What do the other members of the family do for a living? Are there any special openings available for him?
AC AC is a process in which the most important tasks of the job have been modeled by experts. It focuses on the appraisal of the abilities, knowledge, personality of participants. Thorough the process we should listen, how the candidates: cooperate with each other express themselves what influence they have to other group members argue and resolve problems what roles are they able to play and with what results
AC scopes on: Freshly graduated beginners Managerial jobs Commercial jobs Where: The interpersonal abilities have high importance The job needs higher education The pre-selection of the applicants is already done
Iceberg model of competences (Spencer, 1990) Knowledge, abilities, skills social roles personality motivations concious levels Less concious or unconcious levels AC level
Use of the AC selection labour force planning carrier planning training needs planning ROOTS: Wehrmacht - World War II. US Army - World War II. Office of Strategic Services (USA), spies 1956-60: AT and T 1970Widespread
The effectiveness of different selection methods(UK): Assessment Center 65% Tests of work samples 54% Intelligence tests 53% Personality tests 39% Biodata 38% References 23% Interviews 19%
The AC process I. Definition of the job profile and requirements Analysis of the company’s objectives and strategy Detailed job analysis Managerial interviews Possibly ought to be done by managers and consultants AC elements I : group exercises /measurement of interpersonal competences, 5-6 participants/ „in-tray” exercises /modelling administrative aspects; planning; organizing; tactical thinking; priorities/ analytical exercises /examination of analytical and decision making abilities/
AC elements II. presentations tests interviews others: outdoor exercise, case study, managerial role play, creative tasks II. Preparation of the appraisees HR colleagues Managers and/or close colleagues AC consultants III. Agree in the AC program Finalizing scenario Selection of exercises, tests Composing evaluation sheets Preparation of the places of AC process
IV. Carry out AC process Final selection of applicants 1-3 days, max 6 person 1 group Evaluation of the results of the candidates
Advantages/ disadvantages high degree of objectivity + the manager is involved in the process as an appraisee + well prepared experts + previously selected people are in the group + modeling real situations + time consuming - expensive – strict method +/- places and rooms are needed – appraisal on the basis of more aspects + easyer to compare the candidates +
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