2 HRM Learning Outcomes 1. To be able to produce job descriptions and specifications and distinguish between them. Understand the importance of effective Recruitment and Selection Analyse some of the methods used in this field in the UK and elsewhere Identify the requirements of an interview, typical interviewer errors and how to avoid them Examine the need for feedback and evaluation of this process
3 Job Description This is a written description of the job containing the title, reporting relationships, purpose and main tasks and duties
4 Purposes of Job Descriptions 1. to assist in the evaluation of the job 2. to illustrate the job and its many duties as a training tool for new incumbents 3. to be used to determine appraisal criteria 4. to be the basis of the contract of employment 5. to provide the information required to produce person specifications
5 Job Specifications A job (or person, or personnel) specification sets out the education, qualifications, training, experience, personal attributes and competences a job holder requires to perform the job satisfactorily. Within this some requirements may be described as essential/desirable/ or ‘contra’
6 Models of Job Specifications See Rodger (1952) Seven Point Plan Physical make-up Attainments General intelligence Special aptitudes Interests Disposition Circumstances Munro-Fraser (1954) Five fold grading system. Impact on others Acquired qualifications Innate abilities Motivation Adjustment
7 Shortlisting An assessment matrix Categorise candidates as probable, possible or unsuitable, by comparing c.v against pre determined criteria. An assessment matrix can aid objectivity. QualificationsExperienceEvidence of leadership ability Evidence of reliability Candidate 1 8/102/100/104/10 Candidate 2 4/109/107/10 Candidate 3 8/10 7/1010/10
8 Subjective? Watson (1994) believed that the use of person specification frameworks may provide a “cloak for improper discrimination” (p.189) Why might this be true?
9 Selection Methods Many methods of selection exist: Application forms / C.Vs Initial telephone interviews (CIPD 2001, cited Beardwell et al 2004) One-to-one interviews Panel interviews Psychometric tests Assessment Centres Testing ‘In tray’ exercise Presentation Trial Project
10 Activity What are the strengths and weaknesses of the selection methods used?
11 Making the ‘right’ choice The cost of the selection process itself, including the use of various selection instruments The future cost of inducting and training staff The cost of turnover if the selected staff are not retained.
12 Reliable &Valid Selection? Reliability and Validity are 2 statistical concepts which are important in selection Reliability – refers to the extent to which a selection technique achieves consistency in what it is measuring over repeated use, e.g. what matters is how an individual is being measured not by who. Validity – refers to the extent to which a selection technique actually measures what it sets out to measure. For example where the selection methods adopted have been used before, did the organisation get ‘the right’ employees?
13 The trouble with interviews Research suggests that traditional interviews don’t appear to be reliable or valid! ‘Pre-selection’ can take place where implicit discrimination is formed (on the grounds of gender, race, educational qualifications etc) First impressions – and early decisions, which the interviewer may then look to support with their questioning. Stereotyping – interviewers with little skill can quickly label individuals
14 Trouble with interviews 2 ‘The contrast effect’ – interviewers are influenced by the order in which applicants are interviewed. An ‘average’ candidate following a ‘poor’ candidate can appear to be better than they are. Interviewers may compare applicants against each other rather than objective criteria. Attraction – interviewers may be biased towards applicants they ‘like’.
15 International Selection Methods % use of popular selection methods 1. Interviews still most popular – from 97% (France) to 84% (Israel) 2. References and Recommendations – from 74% (UK) to 23% (Germany) Others include: Graphology (France 52%, Netherlands 24%) Astrology (France 6%, Israel 1%)
16 Activity – Common interviewer errors What do you think are the common interviewer errors which occur? What would you do to overcome them?
17 Poor Interviewer Skills Not having a structure Welcome, introductions, description of process, questions, follow-up questions, discussion, summary, what happens next……………..etc! Asking multiple, leading, embarrassing, provocative questions Poor listening skills – this is as important as questioning skill! Interviewer may have poor recall of information discussed, or may have difficulty interpreting what they were told and what that means for whether the applicant can do the job on offer. So make notes! and/or use a Scoring System to help make more objective evaluations.
18 Training for interviewers Will typically include 1. Questioning techniques 2. Understanding of Equal Opportunities legislation. You should research (see Learnwise for resources): Sex and Race discrimination Disability discrimination Age discrimination Employment of people with criminal records Human Rights Act 1998, e.g. questioning someone on what they do in their leisure time could infringe their right to privacy.
19 Questioning Techniques Closed Questions Leading Questions Open Questions Probing questions Two types of questions have been shown to improve the validity and reliability of interviews: Situational questions Patterned behaviour description questions
20 Reliable & Valid Questions Arvey and Champion (1982) found that panel interviews were more reliable and valid when conducted by a panel and based on job analysis and information. Latham et al (1980) found situational interviews reliable and valid where interview questions are derived from systematic job analysis based on a critical incident technique, i.e. what an applicant would do in a variety of situations.
21 Reliable &Valid Questions 2 Pulakos and Schmitt (1995) compared situational questioning against experience- based or behavioural questions. They found behavioural questions to be more predicatively valid as the behavioural question is asking “What have you done in a similar situation?” compared to “What would you do in the situation?”
22 Evaluation Once the recruitment and selection event is complete an evaluation should be conducted. Unless this evaluation occurs then the organisation will not fully understand whether the methods they are currently using to select someone for employment are worthwhile and whether these methods are getting them the sort of people they need for their organisation’s long term health and sustainability.
23 Bibliography Armstrong, M (1999) A handbook of Human Resource Management Practice 7 th edition, Kogan Page Arvey, R D & Champion, J E (1982) The employment interview: a summary of recent research. Personnel Psychology, 35, Beardwell, I & Holden, L, Clayton, T (2004) Human Resource Management 4th edition, Pitman Publishing Bratton, J & Gold, J (2003) Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice 3 rd Edition, Palgrave. Carling, C (1995) How to run a Voluntary Group How to books, Plymouth Carter, S & Jones, D (2000) Enterprise and Small Business Principles Practice and Policy Financial Times, Prentice Hall Foot, M & Hook, C (1999) Introducing Human Resource Management 2 nd edition, Longman Herriot, P Manning, W E G & Kidd, J M (1997) The content of the psychological contract. British Journal of Management, 8(2): Legge, K (1995) Human Resource Management. Rhetorics and Realities Macmillan Business Pulakos, E D & Schmitt, N (1995) Experience- based and situational questions: studies of validity. Personnel Psychology, 48, Scott, M et al (1989) Management and Industrial Relations in small firms Research Paper No. 70, London: Dept of Employment Sparrow, P & Hiltrop, J M (1994) European Human Resource Management in Transition. New York: Prentice Hall Torrington, D & Hall, L (1998) Human Resource Management 4 th Edition, Prentice Hall Watson, T (1994) Recruitment and selection. In Sisson, K (ed.), Personnel Management. Oxford: Blackwell.