Job Analysis This is a study undertaken to identify the main features of a job –physical requirements of the job –skill requirements and tasks –mental requirements and tasks –areas of responsibility –areas of accountability –physical environment –hazards specific to job
Job Description Detailed description of exactly what job entails. This will normally be given to anyone who applies for the job. –job title –relationship with other jobs in organisation –purpose of job –main duties and responsibilities –authority over others in decision making –resources financial, human, equipment, work area –location
Person Specification Details the type of person needed for the job. Includes essential and desirable attributes –physical make-up –Qualifications necessary –attainments –general intelligence –special aptitudes –interests –disposition –circumstances
INTERNAL RECRUITMENT Firms may choose to fill positions with employees who already work for the organisation by advertising internally The benefits of this are –the applicant is already known –the firm may have already invested time and money in training this employee and can benefit from this investment –applicant is already aware of the culture –promotion from within is good for morale –cheaper than external recruitment in terms of money and time
EXTERNAL RECRUITMENT Recruiting outwith the organisation, by advertising job in –local newspapers –national newspapers –specialist publications, eg TES –internet, eg S1jobs.com or firm’s own website –recruitment agencies –headhunting Points to consider –wider pool of applicants –new ‘blood’ –costly in time and money –unknown quantity –demotivating for existing staff? –resentment from unsuccessful internal candidates?
SELECTION It is important to select the most appropriate candidate for the job. Selection methods may involve: –Weeding out using CVs or application forms (Leeting) –Interviewing –Testing – IQ, psychological, aptitude
INTERVIEWING Interviews are useful for assessing the personal qualities of a candidate Interviews are less useful for assessing the technical ability of candidates Interviews may be one-to-one, panel or group Poor interviews are a result of –Lack of training in interview technique –Poor preparation It is possible that interviewers may get a false impression of a candidate and may wish to back up an interview by testing candidates
The good interview Be open minded and unbiased Be prepared – read CVs, application forms, think about suitable questions Welcome the interviewee Control the interview Supply information Close interview Follow-up
Interviewing and technology Using video conferencing can be a cheaper solution than paying travel costs for a number of applicants. Telephone interviews are even cheaper and may be the only interview for jobs in call centres.
TESTING Aptitude test – giving candidates a problem or task to solve Attainment test – a speed test for word processing operators Intelligence test – may be on numeracy, literacy and general knowledge Personality test – sometimes called psychometric testing Selection exercises – outward bound courses, team interviews, social situations