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Congestive Heart Failure

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Presentation on theme: "Congestive Heart Failure"— Presentation transcript:

1 Congestive Heart Failure
Ahmad Osailan

2 What is Heart Failure Results from any structural or functional abnormality that impairs the ability of the ventricle to eject blood (Systolic Heart Failure) or to fill with blood (Diastolic Heart Failure).

3 Classification of Heart Failure based on area of affection
Systolic failure- decreased. Contractility Caused by: Coronary Artery Disease Hypertension Valvular Heart Disease Diastolic failure- decreased. Filling Coronary artery disease.

4 Key Concepts of HF CO = SV x HR-becomes insufficient to meet metabolic needs of body EF< 40% is an indicator of decreased SV

5 Understanding EF EF

6 Factors effecting heart pump effectiveness
Preload: Volume of blood in ventricles at end diastole Depends on venous return Depends on compliance. Afterload Force needed to eject blood into circulation Arterial B/P, pulmonary artery pressure Valvular disease increases afterload

7 Mechanism of HF All organs (liver, lungs, legs, etc.) return blood to heart When heart begins to fail/ weaken> unable to pump blood forward-fluid backs up > Inc. pressure within all organs. Organ response LUNGS: congested > “stiffer” , inc effort to breathe; fluid starts to escape into alveoli; fluid interferes with O2 exchange, aggravates shortness of breath. Shortness of breath during exertion, may be early symptoms > progresses > later require extra pillows at night to breathe > experience "P.N.D." or paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea . Pulmonary edema Legs, ankles, feet- blood from feet and legs > back-up of fluid and pressure in these areas, heart unable to pump blood as promptly as received > inc. fluid within feet and legs causes fluid to "seep" out of blood vessels ; inc. weight

8 Heart Failure

9 Systolic Heart Failure
Systolic failure- most common cause Hallmark finding: Dec. in *left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) Due to Impaired contractile function (e.g., MI) Increased afterload (e.g., hypertension) Cardiomyopathy Mechanical abnormalities (e.g., valve disease)

10 Diastolic Heart Failure
Diastolic failure Impaired ability of ventricles to relax and fill during diastole --> dec. stroke volume and CO Diagnosis based on presence of pulmonary congestion, pulmonary hypertension, ventricular hypertrophy

11 The Vicious Cycle of Congestive Heart Failure

12 Pathophysiology Cardiac compensatory mechanisms 1.tachycardia
2.ventricular dilation- remodeling 3.myocardial hypertrophy Hypoxia leads to dec. contractility

13 Ventricular remodeling

14 Demonstration of How HF occur

15 Most common signs of HF Easy Fatigability. Shortness of breath Why?
Generalized Edema

16 Classification Systems of severity of HF

17 Primary risk factors Contributing risk factors : Hypertension Diabetes
Coronary artery disease (CAD) Advancing age Contributing risk factors : Hypertension Diabetes Tobacco use Obesity High serum cholesterol Valvular heart disease Hypervolemia

18 Heart Failure Complications
Pleural effusion Dysrhythmia or arrythmia HOW HF can cause Arrythmia?

19 Clinical Tests to diagnose HF
Chest x ray Echocardiogram

20 Cardiomegaly

21 Pulmonary vessel congestion

22 Physical Therapy management
Exercises to avoid in HF patients: Above shoulder exercise ( Both) Exercise of LE while supine position like LEG raising. Exercise under water

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