Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 5.1 Atoms are the smallest form of elements 1 2 All matter is made of atoms Same type of atoms = element There are approximately 100 elements known.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "1 5.1 Atoms are the smallest form of elements 1 2 All matter is made of atoms Same type of atoms = element There are approximately 100 elements known."— Presentation transcript:


2 1 5.1 Atoms are the smallest form of elements 1

3 2 All matter is made of atoms Same type of atoms = element There are approximately 100 elements known today 2

4 John Dalton is famous for studies involving atoms (early 1800s) His work helped contribute To the modern-day atomic Theory. 3

5 4 Each has its own symbol & properties Hydrogen is the most abundant in the universe Oxygen is the most abundant in the Earth’s crust

6 5 Each element is made of a different atom Atoms are made of 3 different particles (subatomic particles) Protons, + charge Neutrons, 0 charge Electrons, - charge 5

7 6 Nucleus—center of the atom; contains the protons & neutrons Electron cloud (or energy levels)—contains the electrons which orbit the nucleus Electrons are 2000x smaller than the protons & neutrons

8 7 Energy Levels Carbon has 2 energy levels

9 8 Atomic #--number of protons and total # of electrons in an atom 8

10 9 Atomic mass Mass of electrons is negligible (so small it doesn’t really count) Avogrado’s # = 6.022 X 10 to the 23 rd power 16 grams of oxygen would have Avogrado’s # of atoms in it This also considered to be 1 mole

11 10 # Neutrons = Atomic mass – atomic #

12 11 Isotopes—atoms of the same element with different #s of neutrons Atomic mass is the ave. # of all isotopes An isotope is written with a numeral after the name; the numeral represents the atomic mass

13 Examples Potassium Bohr Model Potassium 40 = 21 neutrons 40 is the atomic mass atomic mass – atomic # 40 – 19 = 21 Potassium 41 = 22 neutrons Potassium 42 = 23 neutrons 12

14 13 Atoms form ions Ions form when atoms gain or lose electrons Electrons have a negative charge Gaining = negative ions (anions) Losing = positive ions (cations) 13

15 14

16 15 5.2 Elements make up the periodic table Elements can be organized by similarities Mendeleev made the 1 st periodic table He ordered the elements according to atomic masses He placed those with similar properties in the same row 15

17 16 The periodic table organizes the atoms of the elements by properties & atomic # 16

18 17 Group (or family)—Column of elements with similar properties 17

19 Families & Ions The elements in the following families may form these ions: Family 1 = +1 Family 2 = +2 Family 13 = +3 Family 17 = -1 Family 16 = -2 Family 15 = -3 18

20 19 Period—row of elements These elements have chemical properties that tend to change the same way across the chart Properties like atomic size, density, & likelihood to form ions vary in regular ways up, down, & across the chart

21 20 5.3 Periodic Table is a map of the elements Periodic table has distinct regions Position on the table reveals something about the element (like how reactive it is) Groups 1 & 17 are very reactive Group 18 is the least reactive (they are stable) 20

22 21 Most elements are metals Metals—usually shiny, conduct electricity & heat well, can be easily shaped & drawn into a wire 21

23 Metals 1. Reactive—families 1 & 2 Alkali metals (family 1) Alkaline earth metals (family 2) 2. Transition—more stable than the reactive metals 3. Rare earth –referred to as the “lathanides” 4. Actinides--radioactive 22

24 23 Alkali metals & alkaline earth metals—at the left of the table & are very reactive

25 24 Transitions metals—near the center & include copper, gold, silver, iron

26 25 Rare earth metals—in the top row of the 2 rows of metals shown outside the main body of the table Bottom 2 rows—separated from the table to save space 25

27 26 Common Properties of the Rare Earths These common properties apply to both the lanthanides and actinides. The rare earths are silver, silvery-white, or gray metals. The metals have a high luster, but tarnish readily in air. The metals have high electrical conductivity. The rare earths share many common properties. This makes them difficult to separate or even distinguish from each other. There are very small differences in solubility and complex formation between the rare earths. The rare earth metals naturally occur together in minerals (e.g., monazite is a mixed rare earth phosphate). Rare earths are found with non-metals, usually in the 3+ oxidation state. There is little tendency to vary the valence. (Europium also has a valence of 2+ and cerium also a valence of 4+.)valence

28 27

29 Nonmetals 1. Halogens—group 17, very reactive nonmetals that can easily form salts 2. Noble gases—group 18, very stable, can be used to make light bulbs 3. Metalloids—properties of both metals & nonmetals, make good semiconductors found in electronics 28

30 29 Nonmetals & metalloids have a wide range of properties Nonmetals are on the right side of the table C, N, O, S Extremely reactive halogens—Cl, I Noble (inert) gases like Ne (non-reactive) 29

31 30 Nonmetals/Halogens

32 31 Noble Gases (inert = non reactive = stable)

33 32 Metalloids lie between metals & nonmetals—they have characteristics of BOTH metals & nonmetals Make good semiconductors in electronic devices (computer chips)

34 33 Some atoms can change their identities Radioactive decay Atomic nucleus is held together by forces Sometimes there can be too many or too few neutrons so these forces cannot hold it together properly To regain stability, the nucleus will produce particles & eject them 33

35 34 Radioactivity Identity of radioactive atoms changes when the # of protons change Half life—amount of time needed for ½ of the atoms in a particular sample to decay Can be thousands or millions of years NEVER decays to zero!! 34

36 35 If half life is 25 years…

Download ppt "1 5.1 Atoms are the smallest form of elements 1 2 All matter is made of atoms Same type of atoms = element There are approximately 100 elements known."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google