1Atoms Proton, + charge, 1 amu Neutron, 0 charge, 1 amu Electron, - charge, 0 amuAMU = atomic mass unitSmaller units called quarks make up protons and neutrons
2Atomic StructureThere are 4 main energy levels around an atom where electrons are found. They are divided into sublevels called orbitals, each orbital holds 2 electrons.S = 1 orbital = 2 electronsP = 3 orbitals = 6 electronsD = 5 orbitals = 10 electronsF = 7 orbitals = 14 electrons
3Atomic Structure 1st energy level = s = 2 electrons 2nd energy level = sp = 8 electrons3rd energy level = spd = 18 electrons4th energy level = spdf = 32 electrons
4Atomic Terms Element, matter made up of all the same atoms Mass Number, sum of protons and neutrons in the atomAtomic Number, number of protons, always a whole numberAtomic Mass Number, the average of all the isotopes of an element
5Atomic Stuff Four Fundamental Forces that work in an atom. 1.) Electromagnetic Force, keeps electrons around the nucleus2.) Strong force, holds the nucleus together3.) Weak Force, radioactivity,4.) Gravity, responsible for atomic interactions
6More Atomic Terms!!Isotope, atoms of the same element with a different number of neutrons, usually radioactive.Substance, matter that has the same properties throughout, could be an element or compound.Compound, substance made up of two or more elements. Formulas are used to represent compounds, H2O, CO2
7Periodic TableCreated by Dimitri Mendeleev, Russian, 1869, he organized atoms according to their atomic weightHenry Moseley, British, 1914, rearranged the table by atomic number, currently used today.Groups or families, each vertical column, they have similar properties and the same number of valence or outer electrons
8More !?!?Periods or rows, horizontal rows in the table, each row has the same number of energy levelsEach chemical is represented by the first or first two letters in the elements name, the first letter is always capitalized.Alkali Metals, 1st column, very reactive metalsAlkali Earth Metals, 2nd Column, not quite as reactive metals
9More and More!?!?Transition Elements, columns 3-12, typical metals, iron, copper, etc.Metals, all the elements to the left of the metalloids, conduct heat & electricity, shiny, malleable (beaten and formed), ductile (drawn into wires)Metalloids, diagonal column of elements between metals and nonmetals, they have metallic and nonmetallic properties
10Still moreHalogens, second to last column of elements, group 17, very reactive gases, halogen means “salt former” reacts with metals to form saltsNoble Gases, last column, unreactive, inert gasesNonmetals, all elements to the right of the metalloids, do not conduce heat or electricity, dull, brittle, powdery.
11The endRare Earth Elements, two separate rows at the bottom of the table, called lanthanides and actinides, all the actinides are radioactive.