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“The Nation’s Beginnings”

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1 “The Nation’s Beginnings”
U.S. History I Standard Review: “The Nation’s Beginnings” Chapter 1 Section 1 Standard 9.1 and 9.3

2 Cultures Collide! Native American (American Indian): Scientist trace native roots to Asia. In theory, they believe that Natives migrated across the Bering “Land Bridge” (Time Period Debatable) The Europeans: 1492: Age of Exploration Christopher Columbus: “Discovered the New World” Conquistadors: Spanish “Conquerors” take over much of Latin America. ( ) Colombian Exchange: Movement of goods between Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas West African: Many slaves were brought to the Americas from Sub-Sahara Africa during the “Triangle Trade” between Europe, Africa, and the Americas Middle Passage: Route from Africa to North America

3 Triangle Trade and Middle Passage: Does Human Slavery Exist Today?

4 “The American Revolution”
U.S. History I Chapter 1 Section 2 “The American Revolution” Standards 1.1,1.2, and 9.3

5 The Birth of Colonial America
1215: Magna Carta: King John: Limited King’s Power and protected people’s right to own property and have a trial by jury 1607: English Establish Jamestown in Virginia House of Burgesses: Legislature elected by Virginia planters that set up a relationship with a “Royal Governor” appointed by the King of England 1620: Mayflower Compact: Plymouth, MA: Set up “self-government” system. 1688: English Bill of Rights: William and Mary: Stated that the King could not raise taxes or build an army w/o Parliament’s consent. 1700’s: Enlightenment: Problems could be solved through human reason Social Contract: People give government its power and “permission” to rule over them. Government’s role is “to protect” the people. (John Locke and Montesquieu) 1740’s: Great Awakening: Religious Movement to “Revive” Church

6 Causes of the American Revolution
: French and Indian War: Britain and France were at war in Europe and it spread to N. America. Native American’s also involved. BRITISH WIN 1764: Sugar Act: British pass tax on imported sugar to pay war debt. Colonist resisted by Boycotting British goods 1765: Stamp Act: British tax all legal documents (Paper) Son’s of Liberty and Daughter’s of Liberty Protest 1766: Stamp Act repealed (Reversed) 1767: Townsend Acts: Tax on many items in colonies. Colonist Boycott Again 1770: Boston Massacre: British Troops kill 5 colonists during tax protest: Townsend Acts Repealed 1773: Boston Tea Party: Colonist protest Tea Tax by dumping Tea into Boston Harbor 1774: Intolerable Acts: Britain “punished” colonies by imposing harsh measures: “writs of assistance” (search w/o warrant) First Continental Congress Meets 1775: Lexington and Concord: First shots of American Revolution fired. New England raises militia: Minutemen: Patriot soldiers (New England’s Football Team?) July 4th, 1776: Declaration of Independence: Philadelphia, PA: Thomas Jefferson “ That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness…” What are Philadelphia’s NBA and NFL nicknames? George Washington: Picked to lead the PATRIOT ARMY. 1781: Yorktown: Washington Defeated Cornwalis. 1783: Treaty of Paris: U.S. gained independence and territory from The East Coast to the Mississippi River

7 13 Colonies and U.S. Territory

8 Washington, Jefferson, Madison, and Hamilton
U.S. History I Chapter 1 Section 3 “The Constitution” 1.1, 1.2, 9.2 Washington, Jefferson, Madison, and Hamilton

9 Building a Constitution
Articles of Confederation: Power remained with states: Kept Federal Government weak Northwest Territory: Land north of Ohio River: Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin. Slavery banned in territories. Shay’s Rebellion: Farmer’s rebelled to avoid foreclosures. Exposed weakness of Federal Government… something new was needed

10 The Constitution 1787: James Madison: The Father of the Constitution
The Great Compromise: New Jersey Plan: favored small states while the Virginia Plan favored large. Compromise was to set up a TWO level Federal Gov’t. Senate = each state received two (small state plan) House of Representatives = based on population (big state plan) 3/5ths clause for slaves Ratify: Officially approve: 9 of 13 Colonies needed for approval Federalists: Supported Constitution (Madison, Hamilton, Hay) Federalist Papers Anti-federalists: Against Constitution (Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams) NO BILL OF RIGHT’S and GOVERNMENT WAS TOO POWERFUL 1789: Congress Passed Bill of Rights 1791: Constitution Ratified George Washington Became President

11 Principles of Constitution: The “Promise of America”
Popular Sovereignty: People are source of Authority Limited Government Power Federalism: State and Federal Gov’t SHARE power Separation of Power: Three Branches Checks and Balances: Each Branch Checks the Power of others Representative Government: Citizens elect people to represent them Individual Rights: Constitution Protects certain rights...speech…etc.

12 Picture: Battle of Fallen Timbers 1794
U.S. History I Chapter 1 Sec 4 “The New Republic” 1.2, 9.3, 9.4 Picture: Battle of Fallen Timbers 1794

13 Federalist vs. Republicans
1791: Hamilton and Federalists create “National Bank” Jefferson and the Democratic Republicans challenged Hamilton Foreign Policy: Alien Act: Made it harder for immigrants to become citizens OR criticize the government Sedition Act: Made it illegal to “discredit” a public official Jefferson becomes president during the Revolution of 1800! Marbury vs. Madison: Upheld Judicial Review: Gave Supreme Court Power over President and Congress (rule law unconstitutional) 1803: Louisiana Purchase: Purchased from France

14 War of 1812 Impressment: British seized U.S. sailors and forced them to serve in British Navy Embargo: Suspend Trade with country (Britain) 1811: With British Agitation: William Henry Harrison battles with an Indian Confederation in Lafayette, Indiana (Tippecanoe) 1812: War began with Great Britain 1814: Treaty signed to end war *After Treaty: Andrew Jackson defeated British at New Orleans: Becomes Hero! 1823: Monroe Doctrine: European Monarchies had NO BUSINESS interfering with American Republics!

15 Tippecanoe: November 1811

16 American Expansion: 1803: Louisiana Purchase: Doubled Size of U.S. 1819: Spain cede Florida to U.S. 1836: Texas won independence from Mexico (Alamo) 1846: Mexican American War (AZ, CA, NM, UT, NV)

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