Presentation on theme: "Exploring the Migration of the Roanoke Colonists By: Ronesha Lucas, Eunice Smith, and Malcom B. Mathis II Mentors: Dr. LeCompte, Dr. San Juan, Mr. Willard,"— Presentation transcript:
Exploring the Migration of the Roanoke Colonists By: Ronesha Lucas, Eunice Smith, and Malcom B. Mathis II Mentors: Dr. LeCompte, Dr. San Juan, Mr. Willard, Dr. Zhang and Dr. Garland
Abstract Historical maps, archives, genealogies, and oral history indicate at least four (4) sites in North Carolina’s Dare (2), Hyde (1) and Tyrrell (1) Counties as Native settlements. One or more of these sites may have provided sanctuary for refugees from the ill-fated colony established on Roanoke Island in The archaeological research design of the Lost Colony Center for Science and Research consists of a predictive model using traditional data but also remote sensing applications, that is, aerial, satellite and geophysical. Environmental studies with remote sensing assist in confirming the sites as habitable. Optical imagery and processing provided the initial results about the locales being habitable (2003 URE Lost Colony Team). Prior study of high-resolution satellite imagery of the Buckridge site in Tyrrell County identified environmental characteristics conducive to habitation. The ridge vegetation of mixed trees was distinct compared to the surrounding wetlands. However, at the highest available spatial resolution (1m) the vegetative canopy obscured the ground at these sites. This study also did not address other factors related to habitation. The current study correlates remote sensing imagery with historical geospatial information to evaluate the suitability for settlement at three locales. For this study, settlement suitability is based upon observable, interdependent, quantifiable environmental factors governing habitability (settlement size and area), arability (soils and vegetation) and defensibility (geographical location and elevation). To determine these factors, data from satellite based Optical and ISAR instruments and aerial LIDAR are compared to observe and quantify the terrain and environment of the historical locales.
Abstract (cont’d) Interferometric Synthetic Aperture RADAR (ISAR) data allows penetration of obscuring vegetative canopies, although at a spatial resolution (30 m.) insufficient to detect discrete cultural features. Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data provides adequate spatial resolution (<1 m.) but is subject to statistical uncertainties over small areas. For this study, ISAR data from NASA’s Shuttle RADAR Topography Mission and LIDAR data from the North Carolina Floodplain Mapping Program were compared to improve the site elevation accuracy. The use of new, public, environmental data sets provided the opportunity to refine the requisite settlement characteristics of habitability, arability and defensibility. The proximate location of sites to ECSU yielded an opportunity to establish ground truth for measurements made remotely. Once remote elevation and environmental data are validated, each site will be the focus of further in- situ study to confirm settlement characteristics. The study continues with Geophysical applications, especially Ground Penetrating Radar, and geologic core samples at the sites with the requisite environmental and terrain characteristics. The 2005 URE project initiated this in situ study at Croatan (Dare) and at Goshen Ridge (Hyde).
History Behind the Mystery First attempt at New World English colonization 116 Colonists landed Roanoke Island, July 22, 1587 Elected John White Governor Encountered hardships John White returned to England for assistance, August 27, 1587 “At the time of my last departure from them, they were prepared to remove from Roanoke 50 miles into the main” (Miller 2000:13). Spanish Armada delayed White’s return until 1590 Colonists disappeared leaving inscription “CROATOAN”
History Behind the Mystery From Sir Walter Raleigh “What manner of forte I would haue I would haue It a pentangell in this manner. With, v, large bulwarkes the Casemates of the Boulwarkes large and open, with a way out of the bulwarke and an other Into the Streat The Collionsides or ocrechons, large and longe, The Curtyns sumwhat slant, that the yearthe may lye the faster and the rampir of the Curtyns very braude…” Paraphrased: “What manner of forte I would have I would have it pentagonal in this manner. With five large bulwarks the casemates of the bulwarks large and open, with a way out of the bulwark and another into the street The collision sides or orechons, large and long, the curtains somewhat slant, that the earth may lie that faster and the rampart of the curtains very broad…”
History Behind the Mystery “…hould a gaynst all the forces of Indda. How I would haue It seated, eyther upon rocke, marrishe, an Iland or peninsula, if this forte wer In an Iland then would I have on the next land to It a forte, wherby I would always be sure of a landing assured, and of a retreat…” Paraphrased: “...hold against all the Indian forces. I would have it seated either upon rocks, marsh, an island or peninsula, if this fort were on an island then I would have a fort next to it whereby I would always be sure of landing assured, and of a retreat…”
Hypothesis The colonists removed to sites associated with Native American habitation and characterized by. –Agricultural Suitability –Defensibility –Within support range of Native American allies (Croatan) –Economic Prospects –Sufficient Settlement Size Sites near Buxton on Cape Hatteras and near the Alligator River headwaters may conform to colonist proposed settlement requirements.
Approach Locate remnant features indicating the location of the “Lost Colony” using an amalgam of remote sensing data processing and GIS techniques –Data: Optical imagery, LIDAR, ISA-RADAR, GPR –GIS Technology: GPS –Archeological methodology Historical Map Comparison to locate known sites Reveal Evident Changes in Topography over 400 years
Relativity: 4 days vs 400 years Changes in land over the course of four days!
Archaeological Research Design Archeology and Historic Preservation; Secretary of the Interior's Standards and Guidelines (48 FR ) 1983 Phase 1 Background Research Includes location of historic map-projected sites Previous archeological research High/Low probability areas Conventional survey Phase 1 Method –Conventional Survey Remote Sensing: identifies high probability areas for subsurface testing Phase 2 Evaluation Survey Phase 3 Data Recovery
Remote Sensing What is Remote Sensing? Sources of Remote Sensing –Aerial –Satellite –In-Situ Geophysical Types of Remote Sensing –Optical Multi-spectral (IKONOS satellite) –LIDAR (LIght Detection and Ranging) NC Floodplain Mapping Program ( NCFMP) –ISAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) –Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) Kolam IKONOS University of Missouri CS
Migration of the Alligator River, Croatan, and Tramanscacooc 1585 and 1588
Migration of the Alligator River, Croatan and Tramanscacok (Cont.) Thoronton Morden Lea1685 and Mosley 1733
LANDSAT and Coastal Wetlands Hardwood Flats on the Alligator River Buck and Goshen Ridges
Soil Description for Croatan Carteret Sand( CeA) : located between forested dunes in the outer banks, this location is irregular in shape and can be used as habitat for wildlife. Conaby Muck (CnA): surface is 14 inches thick black in the upper part and grey in the lower, rare flooding; soil ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid. Area away from the salt water includes vegetation ranging from greenbrier, eastern baccharis, black willow, blueberry, sawgrass and cattail. Theses varies vegetation can be used for weaving, carving, and building houses. Fripp Fine Sand( FrD): soil ranges from strongly acid to mildly alkaline, seasonal high water table is more than 6ft. below the surface. Vegetation supports pine, live oak, cherrybark oak hickory, black cherry and eastern redcedar. Cannot be used as cropland because of doughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients. Ousley Fine Sand(OuB) : well drained sand located on dunes near sound side of the Outer banks, strongly acid, high water range from 1.5 to 3ft. Used mainly as Woodland. Vegetation includes live oak, water oak and sweet grass. This land is generally not used for cropland due to its wetness. Major Crops: none used.
Soil description for Goshen Ridge Yeopim silt loam (YeA) : rarely flooded, deepest of soil ranges from 3 to 54 inches.. Location edge of creeks and marshes along the Pungo River. Hydeland silt loam Scuppernong muck (HyA): rarely flooded, major uses cropland and woodland. Vegetation includes pond pine, swamp blackgum, switchcane, swamp chestnut oak and various other types. Location edge of Pocosin. Ponzer muck (PnA): surface layer soil ranges from 0-6 inches subsoil: 6-21 inches, underlying soil ranges from inches. Roper muck (RoA): rarely flooded, soil depths: surface: 0-5 inches, subsoil: 5-42 inches, underlying: inches. Water capacity: high. Location edge of pocosion. Pungo Muck(PuA) Location: Pocosins and depressions. Soil depths: surface layer: 0-10 inches. Subsoil: inches. Underlying: inches. Major Crops: Corn, soybean, and wheat Soil Thickness in soil components is rich in nutrients suitable for vegetation and crop growth.
Soil Description of Buck Ridge 1988 and 1920 scale:1988:1: mile, 1920:1inch=1 mile Augusta Fine Sandy Loam (At) : level, poorly drained. Dark grayish brown sandy loam. Soil ranges from very strong to medium acidity. Winter coverage helps maintain productivity Belhaven Muck (Ba): Rarely flooded. Soil ranges from slightly to extremely acid.1988 Pungo Muck(Pu): Rarely flooded. Dark grayish brown clay loam. Soil ranges from strongly to extremely acid. Used mainly as woodland.1988 Major Crops: Corn and Soybean Water Source: Alligator River, Su and Albemarle Sound. Norfolk Fine Sand (Ns):1920
Results Buck Ridge Data Table Goshen Ridge Data Table Croatan Data Table Attributes IKONOSLIDARSRTMSoil 1988 Elevation 4.0 ft2.5 ft Distance1.27 mi0.07 mi0.97 mi0.14 mi Area62.2 acres1.1 acres221.4 acres166.4 acres AttributesIKONOSLIDARSRTMSoil 1992 Elevation 3.0 ft4.8 ft Distance 0.18 mi0.11 mi0.19 mi Area 7.7 acres3.1 acres89.6 acres AttributesIKONOSLIDARSRTMSoil 2001 Elevation 7.0 ft4.3 ft Distance0.19 mi0.05 mi0.76 mi0.50 mi Area133.1 acres127.4 acres233.7 acres275.2 acres
Conclusion Criteria for hypothesis validation –Habitable Distance and area –Arable Soil types and vegetation –Defensible Location and elevation Constraints of the study –Data LIDAR statistical inaccuracies SRTM gross spatial resolution (30 m) –Ground-truth (GPS soil and vegetation samples)
Recommendations Historical Map (GIS) Study Airborne ISAR data Ground Penetrating Radar data Ground-truthing Archaeological Survey Studying living descendants Other locations
References Miller, Lee. Roanoke Solving The Mystery Of The Lost Colony Kolam IKONOS University of Missouri CS Quinn, D.B. The Roanoke Voyages Cumming, W.P. The Southeast in Early Maps North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service, “Soil Survey of Dare County”, sheet no.20. North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service, “Soil Survey of Tyrrell County” sheet no.9. North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service, “Soil Survey of Hyde County”, sheet no.9.
Acknowledgements Dr. Linda Hayden Dr. Anne Garland, Dr. Malcolm LeCompte, Dr. San Juan, Mr. Fred Willard URE-OMSS Staff Colleagues