MA & HI Soils are also different MA – Paxton (Inceptisol) HI - Oxisol
Why Are They Different? Soils are a product of 5 Soil Forming Factors. Differences in these 5 factors results in different soils occurring in different places. Soils can differ from State to State, from Town to Town, or even from the Top of the Hill to the Bottom of the Hill.
5 Soil Forming Factors Soil = fx (cl, org, pm, topog., time) –Soils are the result of climate, organisms, geologic parent material, relief, and time. –Differences in any one or more of these factors results in different soils at different locations.
Topography - Soils & Landforms = A Pattern Topography - Soils & Landforms = A Pattern A B C A B C B A
Soil Parent Material New England Soil Parent Materials –Glacial till (ice deposited materials) Lodgement (dense till, drumlin landform) Ablation (loose till, rolling hills) –Glacial Outwash (Meltwater sorted sands & gravels) –Glacial Lake Bed (stratified silts & clays) –Eolian (Wind blown silts & fine sands) –Alluvium (Floodplain deposits) –Organic (Swamps, Salt Marshes)
Ipswich – MA Tidal Salt Marsh Soil Consists of Peat – Partially decomposed salt grass. Very Poorly drained. Experiences daily tidal flooding. High in salinity. Soils often have a rotten egg smell (high in Sulfur).
Soil Formation Horizonation – the A, B, C’s of soils A horizon = Topsoil B horizon = Subsoil C horizon = Substratum or Parent Material
USDA-NRCS Davis, CA 35 Soil Structure How Soil Particles (sand, silt, clay) bind together to form larger units = PEDS Granular Blocky Single-Grain
Soil Color A soil property that is used to indicate other soil chemical & physical properties Some of these are: –Water table depth –Organic matter content –Soil Mineralogy –Carbonate/Gypsum content
What Colors Can Tell Us Grey Colors & Orange Colors –Can be indicators of Shallow water tables Black/Dark Brown Colors –Can indicate high organic matter contents Red Colors –Can indicate hematite iron mineralogy White Colors –Can indicate high carbonate/gypsum levels
Match the sample to the Chip Match a small, moist sample to the paint chips using the holes on the page. The arrow is pointing to the 10YR 4/4 chip = dark yellowish brown.
Soil Interpretations – What the Soil Properties Tell Us Drainage Class – Depth to water table Hydric Soils – Wetland Areas Flooding/Ponding Duration & Frequency Depth to Bedrock – Building limitations
Drainage Class Very poorly drained – w.t. at surface Poorly drained – w.t. at 1.0 ft from surface Somewhat poorly drained – 1.0 – 1.5 ft. Moderately well drained – 1.5 ft – 3.0 ft. Well drained – w.t. > 5.0 ft. Somewhat excessively drained – w.t. > 5.0 Excessively drained – w.t. > 5.0 ft.
Hydric Soil Poorly & Very Poorly Drained Soils. Found in Wetlands. Grey & Orange colors at 12” indicate seasonal high water table. Support wetland vegetation.
Black over gray; stay away. Drainage Classes often follow a Landform pattern.