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11 th Grade TAKS Review Political Influences on United States History.

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Presentation on theme: "11 th Grade TAKS Review Political Influences on United States History."— Presentation transcript:

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2 11 th Grade TAKS Review

3 Political Influences on United States History

4 Magna Carta 1215 The Magna Carta was signed by King John in The Magna Carta was signed by King John in It asserted the right of British citizens to It asserted the right of British citizens to A trial by jury A trial by jury No imprisonment without a trial No imprisonment without a trial No taxation except by approval of Parliament No taxation except by approval of Parliament

5 1492 Christopher Columbus arrived in the Americas. Christopher Columbus arrived in the Americas.

6 Colombian Exchange A series of interactions between the Native Americans and Europeans. A series of interactions between the Native Americans and Europeans.

7 1607 Jamestown, Virginia Jamestown, Virginia First permanent English settlement in North America. First permanent English settlement in North America.

8 English Bill of Rights 1689 Passed by Parliament in English rights reinforced: no taxation right to petition individual rights

9 American Revolutionary Period

10 1776 Declaration of Independence signed. Declaration of Independence signed. Start of the Revolutionary War. Start of the Revolutionary War. United States established as an independent nation. United States established as an independent nation.

11 Representative Government A system of government in which power is held by the people and their will is carried out by elected representatives. A system of government in which power is held by the people and their will is carried out by elected representatives.

12 Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776 Written by Thomas Jefferson American colonies declare independence from England List of grievances against King George III

13 Declaration of Independence The Declaration states the two major principles on which the Constitution is based: The Declaration states the two major principles on which the Constitution is based: Government gets its power from the consent of the governed. Government gets its power from the consent of the governed. All men are created equal and have unalienable rights. All men are created equal and have unalienable rights.

14 Thomas Jefferson Main author of the Declaration of Independence Main author of the Declaration of Independence 3 rd President 3 rd President

15 Unalienable Rights Rights/Privileges according to the Declaration of Independence. Rights/Privileges according to the Declaration of Independence. These rights cannot be taken away. These rights cannot be taken away. Unalienable Rights are: Unalienable Rights are: Life Life Liberty Liberty Pursuit of happiness Pursuit of happiness

16 Grievances =Complains

17 Colonial Grievances Taxation without consent (permission) Taxation without consent (permission) No representation No representation No trial by jury No trial by jury Quartering troops Quartering troops Standing armies in peace time Standing armies in peace time

18 Revolution Armed rebellion Uprising against the government or authority A period of great change

19 Independence Free from influence or control of other nations, sovereign.

20 American Revolution The war of independence fought between Britain and 13 of its colonies in North America The war of independence fought between Britain and 13 of its colonies in North America

21 George Washington Leader of the Continental Army during the Revolution Leader of the Continental Army during the Revolution 1 st president of the United States 1 st president of the United States

22 Lexington and Concord (1775) Battles that started the American Revolution. Battles that started the American Revolution.

23 Battle of Saratoga (1777) Colonist victory over British. Colonist victory over British. Turning point in Revolutionary War. Turning point in Revolutionary War. French offer help to colonists. French offer help to colonists.

24 Battle of Yorktown (1781) Colonists defeated the British. Colonists defeated the British. The British surrendered. The British surrendered. End of military struggle. End of military struggle.

25 Treaty of Paris (1783) Ended the Revolutionary War. Ended the Revolutionary War. British recognized colonists’ independence. British recognized colonists’ independence. British gave colonists all the lands stretching west of the Mississippi River. British gave colonists all the lands stretching west of the Mississippi River.

26 Confederation An alliance of states where states have the majority of the power and retain their sovereignty.

27 Articles of Confederation First government of United States from 1781 – State sovereignty Weak national government No standing army No power to tax No courts No executive

28 U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights

29 1787 U.S. Constitution written at Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia Ratification of Constitution and Federalist Papers in 1788.

30 Philadelphia Convention 1787 Constitutional convention resulted in creation of FEDERAL government (separate executive, judicial and legislative branches) Convention replaced the Articles of Confederation and wrote the U.S. Constitution

31 Principles of the U.S. Constitution Basic law and government of the United States Based on 7 principles: Republicanism Popular sovereignty Federalism Limited government Separation of power Checks and balances Individual rights

32 Republicanism The idea that government is controlled by the people who hold power and elect representatives, giving those representatives power to make and enforce laws. The idea that government is controlled by the people who hold power and elect representatives, giving those representatives power to make and enforce laws.

33 Popular Sovereignty All political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. All political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government.

34 Limited Government Limits are placed on the powers of government Everyone, including all authority figures, must obey the laws

35 Checks and Balances Each branch of the government shares its power and checks the other two. Prevents any branch of government from becoming too powerful.

36 Federalism Distribution of the powers of government between a central (federal) government and the regional (states) governments.

37 = 1

38 = 50

39 Separation of Powers Form of government organized in three branches A legislative branch (Congress) An executive branch (the President) A judicial branch (Supreme Court)

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43 Individual Rights The rights of the people protected in the Bill of Rights including: Economic rights related to property Political rights related to freedom of speech and press personal rights related to bearing arms and maintaining private residences

44 Federalist Papers Newspaper articles in New York state. Explained reasons why people should adopt the new US constitution. Authors: Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay.

45 Ratify Approve Approve

46 Amendments The way of making changes to the U.S. Constitution The way of making changes to the U.S. Constitution

47 Bill of Rights First ten amendments to the Constitution First ten amendments to the Constitution (ratified in 1791) (ratified in 1791)

48 First Amendment: Religious and Political Freedom States that “Congress shall make no law” restricting freedom of: States that “Congress shall make no law” restricting freedom of: Speech Press Religion Assembly Petition

49 Second Amendment: Right to Bear Arms Guarantees the right of states to organize militias, or armies, and the right of individuals to bear arms. Guarantees the right of states to organize militias, or armies, and the right of individuals to bear arms.

50 Third Amendment: Quartering of Troops Soldiers cannot be housed in people’s homes unless it is approved by law. Soldiers cannot be housed in people’s homes unless it is approved by law.

51 Fourth Amendment: Search and Seizure Protects citizens from unreasonable searches and seizures. Protects citizens from unreasonable searches and seizures. If a judge believes the search is reasonable, a search warrant will be granted. If a judge believes the search is reasonable, a search warrant will be granted.

52 Fifth Amendment: Rights of the Accused This amendment protects an accused person from having to testify against him or herself (self- incrimination). This amendment protects an accused person from having to testify against him or herself (self- incrimination). It bans double jeopardy (tried twice for the same crime) It bans double jeopardy (tried twice for the same crime) It guarantees that no citizen may be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law – certain legal procedures that must be carried out before a person can be punished. It guarantees that no citizen may be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law – certain legal procedures that must be carried out before a person can be punished.

53 Sixth Amendment: Right to a Speedy, Public Trial Guarantees a fair and impartial trial to those accused of a crime. Guarantees a fair and impartial trial to those accused of a crime. Accused must be told of the charges. Accused must be told of the charges. Accused has a right to a trial by jury. Accused has a right to a trial by jury. Accused has a right to be represented by a lawyer. Accused has a right to be represented by a lawyer.

54 Seventh Amendment: Trial by Jury in Civil Cases Guarantees individuals the right to a jury trial in many non- criminal matters. Guarantees individuals the right to a jury trial in many non- criminal matters.

55 Eighth Amendment: Limits of Fines and Punishment Federal courts can not require an unusually high bail. Federal courts can not require an unusually high bail. No one can be punished in an cruel and unusual way. No one can be punished in an cruel and unusual way.

56 United States History 1800 to 1877

57 Nullify

58 Nullification Crisis Attempt by South Carolina to nullify of federal law in Issue->high federal tariffs South Carolina protested/refused to pay President Jackson ->Force Act South Carolina backed down Southerners favored freedom of trade and believed in the authority of states over the federal government. Southerners favored freedom of trade and believed in the authority of states over the federal government. Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void. Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void.

59 Dred Scott v. Sandford Supreme Court case that ruled that African Americans were not citizens of the U.S. Supreme Court case that ruled that African Americans were not citizens of the U.S.

60 The movement to end slavery in the United States. The movement to end slavery in the United States. Abolitionist Movement

61 Plantation System A system of agricultural production based on large-scale land ownership and use of slave labor. A system of agricultural production based on large-scale land ownership and use of slave labor.

62 States’ Rights A view held by Southerners before the Civil War that the states were sovereign and had rights independent of the federal government and law.

63 States’ Rights The idea that states had the right to control all issues/laws in their state not specifically given to the federal government by the specific words of the Constitution. The idea that states had the right to control all issues/laws in their state not specifically given to the federal government by the specific words of the Constitution.

64 States’ Rights It was used mostly by Southern states to argue that they had the right to nullify federal laws they did not agree with. It was used mostly by Southern states to argue that they had the right to nullify federal laws they did not agree with.

65 Secession = to withdraw = to withdraw 11 of the Southern states separated from the United States and formed their own country = Confederate States of America. 11 of the Southern states separated from the United States and formed their own country = Confederate States of America.

66 Dates of the Civil War between North and South. War between the States, began with Ft. Sumter and ended at Appomattox Courthouse Major battles: Gettysburg and Vicksburg

67 Civil War The U.S. Civil War ( ) resulted from years of conflict between competing sectional interests – including The U.S. Civil War ( ) resulted from years of conflict between competing sectional interests – including slavery States’ rights conflicting economic and social structures of the North and South.

68 Emancipation Proclamation Issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862 Issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862 It declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free. It declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free.

69 Gettysburg Address Speech given by Abraham Lincoln which captured the spirit of liberty and morality ideally held by citizens of a democracy. Speech given by Abraham Lincoln which captured the spirit of liberty and morality ideally held by citizens of a democracy. That ideal was threatened by the Civil War. That ideal was threatened by the Civil War.

70 Reconstruction ( )

71 Reconstruction Amendments 13 th amendment: th amendment : th amendment : 1870

72 13 th Amendment A Reconstruction amendment that freed slaves in the United States A Reconstruction amendment that freed slaves in the United States

73 14 th Amendment A Reconstruction amendment, which declared that all persons born in the U.S. were citizens and were entitled to equal rights. A Reconstruction amendment, which declared that all persons born in the U.S. were citizens and were entitled to equal rights.

74 15 th Amendment A Reconstruction amendment that granted black men the right to vote. A Reconstruction amendment that granted black men the right to vote.


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