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Approaches and results of the research on long-term forest development in the Czech Republic ERC project „Long-term woodland dynamics in Central Europe:

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Presentation on theme: "Approaches and results of the research on long-term forest development in the Czech Republic ERC project „Long-term woodland dynamics in Central Europe:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Approaches and results of the research on long-term forest development in the Czech Republic ERC project „Long-term woodland dynamics in Central Europe: from estimations to a realistic model Radim Hédl Institute of Botany Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic

2 Why do we want to know history of the forest? better understanding of the present state advice on management decision making provides a broader perspective to our research WoS: “historical ecology“ 1973–2008 Historical ecology

3 How can we learn about nature’s past? archaeobotany paleoecology geosciences history botany (neo)ecology fossil: - pollen - macrofossil - charcoal … archival sources: - written - maps - art … plants: - species - vegetation - environment … years

4 AD the present history time ecology paleoecology archaeology BC fine coarse resolution Subjects and scaling: matter of resolution

5 Scaling: ecology and history Szabó – Hédl, 2011, Cons. Biol.

6 “historical” resources -Not readily usable -Often qualitative For example: Urbaria Perambulations Estate conscriptions Account books Normative directives “ecological” resources -Readily usable -Mostly quantitative For example: Forestry documents Cadastres Estate maps ca AD “Ecological” vs. “historical” resources The 1800-barrier older younger

7 Historical resources Coppicing cycles – how often were forests cut Mikulov estate (S Moravia) Urbarium from 1384: “Das holcz, das do get niderhalb des wegs durich die Chlausen, das haist der Lelasch, und ist deselb zeit 2 jar alt gevesen; wann er zw 7 jarn chumpt, so schaczt mann für 36 lb. und 2 lb. ze leitchauff.” Forest description from 1692:

8 Forest in the Czech Republic currently 34% cover (and increasing)

9 Altitude: the most obvious large-scale factor < 400 m n.m m n.m. > 800 m n.m.

10 Lowlands mostly deforested since the Neolithic (7ka BP)

11 Bronze Age Neolithic Chernozems

12 Moravian cadastres The first record

13 The historical database Records on forest so far mostly in lowlands

14 Lowland forests relatively best knowledge up to 400 (500) m of altitude European phenomenon warmer, usually drier climate long-term human inhabitation intensively managed stable in extent (ancient woodland) specific (and threatened) biodiversity

15 coppice (Niederwald) high forest (Hochwald) wood pasture (Hutweide) Three basic management forms in the lowland forest most common in the past most common in the present information scarce

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25 Hayley Wood E England Děvín S Moravia P. Szabó, 2010, ForEcolManag 1 Increasing forest age in the past centuries Comparison of coppices in Moravia and England

26 Increasing forest age in the past centuries forestry maps, NNR Koda, ca. 460 ha Orig. J. Müllerová

27 Strong decrease since late 19th century 1 Increasing forest age in the past centuries forestry maps, NNR Koda, ca. 460 ha

28 Czech Republic Pálava PLA J. Altman et al., PLoS ONE, Coppicing history on a small scale Dendrochronology of standards NNR Děvín, ca. 24 ha

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30 J. Altman et al., PLoS ONE, Coppicing history on a small scale Evidence 1: Detection of release in tree-rings

31 Management plan Coppicing history on a small scale Evidence 2: Years with the last coppicing

32 J. Altman et al., PLoS ONE, 2013 Almost no recruitment after the abandonment of coppicing 2 Coppicing history on a small scale Consequences: Oak recruitment

33 Aerial photograph from km 3 Stability and change of an oak forest subcontinental oakwood on eolic sand Dúbrava, ca ha

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35 3 Stability and change of an oak forest Evidence 1: pollen & macrofossil profiles The forest hollows approach

36 90 cm yr

37 E. Jamrichová et al., The Holocene, Stability and change of an oak forest Evidence 1. pollen & macrofossil profiles Major change in around 1350: Corylus -> Quercus

38 The founding charter of the Augustinian monastery in Brno, 1370 (an early modern copy) 3 Stability and change of an oak forest Evidence 2: archival written documents Ban on oak felling in around 1350

39 1350: Klečka („shrubs“) 1370: Dúbrava dicta Klečka 1509: Dúbrava Hodonská 1531: Dúbrava Hodonská + Klečka (for the last time) since 1609: Dúbrava („oak forest“) 3 Stability and change of an oak forest How this change was reflected in the forest name? Shift from Klečka to Dúbrava

40 Samek, V. (1964): Lesní společenstva Českého krasu. Rozpr. ČSAV 74, sešit 7. Orig. A. Veverková 4 Vegetation change in since the 1950s From coppices to high forest Part 1 Bohemian Karst, central Bohemia, ca. 100 km 2 The vegetation plots resurvey approach Beech wood Oak woodOak-hornbeam wood

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42 Orig. A. Veverková light – canopy nutrients – nitrogen acidity moisture 4 Vegetation change in since the 1950s Environmental change through Ellenberg indicator values Darker & more fertile forest

43 Fraxinus excelsior shrub52.2 Elymus caninus49.6 Fagus sylvatica juv.49.1 Cornus mas juv.43 Galium odoratum43 Acer pseudoplatanus juv.41.8 Carpinus betulus juv.41.8 Cornus mas shrub41.8 Prunus avium juv.41.1 Alliaria petiolata41 Acer platanoides juv.37.7 Tilia cordata+plat. juv.37 Impatiens parviflora36.7 Chaerophyllum temulum36.4 Sanicula europaea35.7 Galium aparine34.8 Mercurialis perennis34.8 Viola hirta40.6 Trifolium alpestre38.4 Myosotis sylvatica36.7 Phyteuma spicatum34.3 Avenella flexuosa31.5 Silene nutans31.4 Veronica chamaedrys agg.30.8 Increased species: tree saplings nitrophytes Decreased species: not many 4 Vegetation change in since the 1950s Species composition spp. richness increase

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46 4 Vegetation change in since the 1950s From coppices to high forest Part 2 Děvín, S Moravia, ca. 380 ha The vegetation plots resurvey approach

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48 Species per plot Share of plots 4 Vegetation change in since the 1950s Number of species per plot (alpha-diversity) Species richness impoverishment

49 Verheyen et al., 2012, J Ecol 5 Diversity changes: nitrogen or light? 23 resurvey studies from Europe Species richness change (per plot) Gradient of N-deposition

50 Verheyen et al., 2012, J Ecol Ellenberg N Ellenberg L

51 Verheyen et al., 2012, J Ecol Canopy cover Tree shading

52 6 Climate change 1409 resurveyed plots Thermophilization De Frenne et al., PNAS, 2013 Temperate forest in NW and Central Europe N America

53 De Frenne et al., PNAS, Climate change Macroclimate vs. microclimate Canopy closure buffers thermophilization

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56 The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/ ) / ERC Grant agreement no Acknowledgments


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