Presentation on theme: "A2 BIOLOGY UNIT F215 MODULE 3: ECOSYSTEMS AND SUSTAINABILITY."— Presentation transcript:
A2 BIOLOGY UNIT F215 MODULE 3: ECOSYSTEMS AND SUSTAINABILITY
AIMS To provide an overview of careful resource management without reducing biodiversity Pages OCR book Pgs booklet
TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST Populations and Sustainability (f) explain how the management of an ecosystem can provide resources in a sustainable way, with reference to timber production in a temperate country; Stretch and Challenge task: Explain how the management technique can be used to improve biodiversity and conservation value in woodland.
Over the course of the year the climate will range from cold with snow, to hot, with rain. Some seasons will be wetter than others. Temperature ranges up to about 20° C down to freezing. Temperate Climate
INDICATOR AND DOMINANT SPECIES Many of the dominant species produce very large seeds; the large seed contains enough food to sustain the seedling as it grows up through the leaf litter into the shaded world of the forest floor. About 30 broadleaf species are native to Britain E.g. Oak (Quercus sp.)
CHARACTERISTICS Broad large leaves to help absorb as much sunlight as possible for photosynthesis before the leaves are shed Shed leaves to prevent unnecessary loss of water in the winter
LAYERS The forest is made up of three layers
TOP LAYER = Canopy Thickest layer Grows up top between 20m and 30m Thickest cover during summer when there is more sunshine
MIDDLE LAYER = Shrub layer Made up of shrubs and smaller trees
BOTTOM LAYER = forest floor (leaf litter) Forest floor Made up of grasses, ferns and mosses
THREATS – the need for conservation and management Easily converted to agricultural land Development – housing Logging; most trees are hardwoods, meaning they have a denser wood than most coniferous trees Pollution - Acid Rain from coal-burning is another threat Global warming - may change rainfall patterns
Sustainable Timber Production Examples of uses of timber:- –Building construction –Fencing –Garden products (bark chipping, furniture, posts) –Fuel (wood and charcoal) –Paper –Furniture –Craft products –Cricket bats
SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT What is meant by the phrase sustainable management of wood production? Management techniques that ensure that diversity is maintained, whilst producing a continuous and regular supply of wood
DEFINE KEY WORDS: Coppice Pollard Standard Rotational Coppicing
COPPICING – SUSTAINABLE TIMBER PRODUCTION WHICH MAINTAINS BIODIVERSITY
MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCES: HOW TO COPPICE A TREE –
TASK Compare the management of small-scale timber production and large-scale timber production You will need to write the differences and similarities between these OCR Book pgs
ANSWERS –SMALL SCALE VS LARGE SCALE Differences Different-sized timbers produced Coppicing vs felling Habitat destruction happens more in large-scale production Large-scale felling can reduce soil quality, coppicing does not Coppicing does not involve planting new trees, whereas large scale production does Similarities Selective cutting and growing standards are similar strategies to gain high-quality large timbers
CLEAR FELLING – ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES?
ADVANTAGES OF SELECTIVE CUTTING?
POLLARDED TREES – WHEN IS THIS SYSTEM USEFUL?
Woodland management 8 minutes
Good forestry practice – sustainable management Coppice part of a wood each year – use rotational coppicing and coppicing with standards Use selective cutting rather than clear felling Provide a long rotation time When planting, match tree species to the climate, landscape and soil type Manage habitats for declining populations e.g. birds Plant trees the best distance apart Control pests, pathogens and invasive species Practise selective culling
Damage to bark by grey squirrels
Browsing by deer
STANDARDS GROWING AMONGST COPPICED TREES.
MODERN FORESTRY PRACTICES Selective felling where only the largest most valuable trees are felled. Any tree harvested is replaced by another Local people benefit from the forest.
SUSTAINABLE TIMBER MANAGEMENT Maintaining a sustainable forest ecosystem –Gather information on biodiversity and wildlife –Consider transport links and markets –Formulate ecological and business plans –Select appropriate species to grow –Measurement of forest growth and structure –Application of ecologically sensitive systems Clear felling vs. selective felling vs. strip felling –Recreational use of forests by the public –Use of broad-leaved deciduous species