3AimsTo provide an overview of careful resource management without reducing biodiversityPages OCR bookPgs booklet
4TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST 5.3.2 Populations and Sustainability(f) explain how the management of an ecosystem can provide resources in a sustainable way, with reference to timber production in a temperate country;Stretch and Challenge task: Explain how the management technique can be used to improve biodiversity and conservation value in woodland.
5Temperate ClimateOver the course of the year the climate will range from cold with snow, to hot, with rain. Some seasons will be wetter than others.Temperature ranges up to about 20° C down to freezing.
6Indicator and Dominant Species Many of the dominant species produce very large seeds; the large seed contains enough food to sustain the seedling as it grows up through the leaf litter into the shaded world of the forest floor.About 30 broadleaf species are native to BritainE.g. Oak (Quercus sp.)
7CharacteristicsBroad large leaves to help absorb as much sunlight as possible for photosynthesis before the leaves are shedShed leaves to prevent unnecessary loss of water in the winter
9TOP LAYER = Canopy Thickest layer Grows up top between 20m and 30m Thickest cover during summer when there is more sunshine
10MIDDLE LAYER = Shrub layer Made up of shrubs and smaller trees
11BOTTOM LAYER = forest floor (leaf litter) Made up of grasses, ferns and mosses
12THREATS – the need for conservation and management Easily converted to agricultural landDevelopment – housingLogging; most trees are hardwoods, meaning they have a denser wood than most coniferous treesPollution - Acid Rain from coal-burning is another threatGlobal warming - may change rainfall patterns
13Sustainable Timber Production Examples of uses of timber:-Building constructionFencingGarden products (bark chipping, furniture, posts)Fuel (wood and charcoal)PaperFurnitureCraft productsCricket bats
14SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT What is meant by the phrase sustainable management of wood production?Management techniques that ensure that diversity is maintained, whilst producing a continuous and regular supply of wood
16Coppicing – sustainable timber production which maintains biodiversity
17Management for sustainable resources: How to Coppice a Tree –
18TaskCompare the management of small-scale timber production and large-scale timber productionYou will need to write the differences and similarities between theseOCR Book pgs
19Answers –Small Scale vs Large ScALe DifferencesDifferent-sized timbers producedCoppicing vs fellingHabitat destruction happens more in large-scale productionLarge-scale felling can reduce soil quality, coppicing does notCoppicing does not involve planting new trees, whereas large scale production doesSimilaritiesSelective cutting and growing standards are similar strategies to gain high-quality large timbers
24Good forestry practice – sustainable management Coppice part of a wood each year – use rotational coppicing and coppicing with standardsUse selective cutting rather than clear fellingProvide a long rotation timeWhen planting, match tree species to the climate, landscape and soil typeManage habitats for declining populations e.g. birdsPlant trees the best distance apartControl pests, pathogens and invasive speciesPractise selective culling
28Modern forestry practices Selective felling where only the largest most valuable trees are felled.Any tree harvested is replaced by anotherLocal people benefit from the forest.
29Sustainable Timber management Maintaining a sustainable forest ecosystemGather information on biodiversity and wildlifeConsider transport links and marketsFormulate ecological and business plansSelect appropriate species to growMeasurement of forest growth and structureApplication of ecologically sensitive systemsClear felling vs. selective felling vs. strip fellingRecreational use of forests by the publicUse of broad-leaved deciduous species