Presentation on theme: "(History of Forestry). The most commonly accepted definition is : “The art and science of growing forests”……. But this definition begs the question."— Presentation transcript:
(History of Forestry)
The most commonly accepted definition is : “The art and science of growing forests”……. But this definition begs the question “What is a forest ?”
Forests are tree dominated ecosystems displaying the seral dynamics of ecosystem maturity and possesses tree crown cover (stand density) of more than 20% of the area*. The tree species of a forest account for less than 01 % of the biodiversity of such formations and help in maintaining total biodiversity. In terms of biomass, tree species account for over 80% % of a forest. Biodiversity is the expression of the complexity of patterns produced by that biomass. Therefore, the identity of a forest is best expressed by its biodiversity status. This measure of biodiversity status has been much discussed and would seem to be easiest if measured as alpha (numbers of species) biodiversity.. * The figure of 20% tree crown cover (stand density) as defining a forest comes from the FAO 1990 Forest Resources assessment, FAO Rome. This is a very minimal figure. In Tropical the document requires a 10% crown cover. There must be an immediate review of the figure and make it context specific. If this figure of stand density is accepted for a forest that had 80% canopy cover, reducing it to 20% will still sustain a forest. The allowable loss of forest crown to retain the definition of a forest should be a maximum of 40%.
institution of forestry arose from the protection and maintenance of forests that belonged to the nobility. For instance the timber-getters and gamekeepers of Mediaeval Europe evolved to become the officials responsible to the king (Magna Carta of King John AD 1215.)
The early foresters were more akin to gamekeepers and had a different set of priorities in managing forests. The early secret societies that were developed by the European Foresters became the base of the Forestry Societies to which the emerging ranks of western foresters joined creating a powerful force for the extension of Eurocentric concepts. The goal in management was to keep out commoners and maintain the integrity of the forest.
In order to remedy this situation and meet with the growing need for timber,in 1780, Henrich Cotta of Germany developed a system of clear cutting to remove the poor stand and replanting the area with even aged, good stock.
1800,s Foresters like G.S.Hartig of Germany, became a strong proponents of even-age monocultures. His work led to the establishment of large areas of Norway and Sitka Spruce throughout Saxony and the northern states of Germany In the 1900,s Influential European foresters like Fernow (1902), a pioneer of the American forest industry, noted that 'The first and foremost purpose of a forest growth is to supply us with wood material; it is the substance of the trees itself, not their fruit, their beauty, their shade, their shelter, that constitutes the primary object This model of single use forestry was brought not only to North America, but also to Australia, New Zealand, Japan and India by European foresters Given this historical scenario it is hardly surprising that the response of modern forestry is commonly deficient in considerations other than those of producing wood
this system of ‘forestry’ was used solely for the establishment of monoculture plantations with the exclusion of the public. As King (1989) states " It cannot be over-emphasized, however, that for more than a hundred years, in the period 1856-1976, little or no thought appears to have been given, in the practice of the system, to the farm, to the farmer and to his agricultural outputs. The system was designed and implemented solely for the forester".
The forest, is inseparable from trees, their associated organisms and its ecological history. Indeed the forest as an organized system also provides products and services that cannot be provided by any individual tree. Forest water and forest biodiversity are two good examples of the product of a whole forest.
Understand the forest as an ecosystem. Value or add value to its ecosystem services. Design for more than the optimum output of wood. Appreciate the value of rural and indigenous communities Use biodiversity as a performance indicator Understand the use of forestry in restoration needs