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A Report on The Exploration of Dogwood Grove By: Holli Phillips.

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1 A Report on The Exploration of Dogwood Grove By: Holli Phillips

2 Abstract Information was gathered about an area on the campus of the University of Cincinnati Clermont now called ‘Dogwood Grove’ via soil and water analyses, plant and animal surveys, and various other tests of environmental factors which helped the students to better understand the ecosystems within the area.

3 Introduction For the study of ecology at the University of Cincinnati Clermont the students of Spring Quarter 2012 were asked to survey and analyze different areas of the campus. This class was mostly devoted to gathering information on the area recently named ‘Dogwood Grove’ which, prior to this class, had not been studied with any specific focus. As there is no definitive data on this area from years past, the main purpose of this set of experiments has been to gather as much data as possible. The information presented here will serve as a baseline for comparison for any other future studies of this area to determine how the flora and fauna are changing and/or adapting to any changes in internal and external factors.

4 Literature Review It is well known to the students and biology staff of UC Clermont that there is a problem on campus with the invader shrub amur honeysuckle(Lonicera maackii). One of the first things noted in the exploration of Dogwood Grove was the presence of this invader. Results from a study done by Hutchinson, et. al. suggests that when the honeysuckle flourishes in an area, tree seedlings and herbs are negatively affected (Hutchinson, 1997). They attribute these negative effects to reduced light under the shrub’s canopies, reduced nutrients and moisture due to it’s shallow root system, and allelopathy (Hutchinson, 1997). One of the aspects we studied was soil quality. As defined by Karlen D. L., soil quality is “the capacity of a specific kind of soil to function, within natural or managed ecosystem boundaries, to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain or enhance water and air quality, and support human health and habitation.” (Karlen, 1997) While these two aspects will not be discussed in depth here, they are important components of this ecosystem and further data should be gathered in the future for later comparison.

5 Methods and Materials All tests were conducted via the methods and materials according to the protocols for the University of Cincinnati Clermont Biology Lab 303 (Carter, 1991).

6 Data - Mapping By taking multiple azimuth readings, we were able to come up with data points which Mrs. Carter was able to use to make this map.

7 Data - Fauna Sampling In Dogwood Grove we sighted high numbers of earthworms, spiders, and pillbugs. Other animals sighted were: -Daddy long legs-Craneflies -Centipedes-Ants -Springtails-Slugs -Roaches-A few unspecified flies, bugs, and birds We also gathered data from the Ponds area and the wooded area on the west edge of the auxiliary parking lot and found that the parking lot area had the most animals seen in an hour’s time. Also, we saw more individual species in both the ponds and the parking lot area than we did in Dogwood Grove.

8 Data – Random Tree Pairs Analysis The most numerous trees within the area surveyed were the black cherry and the ash trees. Other trees noted were: -Dogwood-Sugar Maple -Elm-Iron Wood -Black Locust-Chestnut Oak -Eastern Red Cedar-Honey Locust -Red Maple-Hickory -Tulip Poplar-Crab Apple -Redbud-Bald Cypress -Osage Orange

9 Data – Flora Sampling (Herbs) This is a list of herbaceous plants and their abundance in a one square meter area: Garlic Mustard(24) Japanese and Amur Honeysuckle(19) Cinquefoils(16) Virginia Creeper(8) Jewelweed(6) Rose(1) Dandelion(1) Onion(1)

10 Data – Flora Sampling (Shrubs) This is a list of shrubs and their abundance in a 16 square meter area: Japanese Honeysuckle(50) Garlic Mustard(49) Virginia Creeper(35) Jewelweed(24) Roses/Blackberry/Black Raspberry (24) White Snakeroot (24) Amur Honeysuckle(19) Cinquefoils(8) Oak Saplings(3) Maple Saplings(2) Ash Saplings(2) Euonymus(1) Buckeye Sapling(1) Osage Orange Sapling(1)

11 Data – Environmental Factors Data Collected on 05.01.12 at 2:29 pm Sky Condition: Overcast Light Intensity (Foot-Candles) High: 205 Medium: 60 Low: 20 Air Temperature (° C) Dry Bulb: 23° Wet Bulb: 20° Relative Humidity: 75% Soil Temperature: 18° C Light Intensity (milliphot) High: 220.58 Medium: 64.56 Low: 21.52 Wind Velocity (mph) Head Height: 0 Ground Height: 0 Wind Velocity (cm/sec) Head Height: 0 Ground Height: 0

12 Data – Water Analysis Dissolved Oxygen: 5.87 mg O 2 / L H 2 O Hardness: 11 ppm CaCO 3 Acidity: pH= 5.8 Chlorosity: 0.0142 g Cl - / L H 2 O @ 20° C Water Samples were also analyzed from both North and South Maple Creeks. The water from Dogwood Grove was less hard, more acidic, contained less chloride, and contained more dissolved oxygen than either of the other two samples.

13 Data – Soil Analysis & Aquatic Habitats No data was obtained for either of these protocols. Since the soil analysis was one of the first labs performed, no one had the foresight to analyze soil from out area of focus (Dogwood Grove). Also, there was not enough water in Dogwood Grove to do the aquatic habitat lab in this area.

14 Conclusions Dogwood Grove is relatively small compared with some of the other areas so that may account for some of the limited plant and animal numbers we obtained. Another likely factor is the presence of honeysuckle. It is known to inhibit growth of other plants which may, in turn, inhibit the ability of some animals to thrive. There was mention of the possibility of clearing out the honeysuckle from this area to allow it to come to it’s full potential without being inhibited by this invader. I feel that this is an excellent idea and that it should be seen to fruition so that data may be obtained in years to come about how this has or has not affected the success and/or diversity of this lovely little area. Another factor which may be the source of limited organism diversity (versus other areas on campus) is the fact that there is not a major water source anywhere nearby. There is a small trickle of runoff but it isn’t comparable to the volume of either the ponds or the creeks nearby.

15 References Carter, J. L.S. "Mapping - Use of Compass and Transit." 1991. Web. 27 May 2012.. Carter, J. L.S. "Fauna Sampling - Community Composition." 1991. Web. 27 May 2012.. Carter, J. L.S. "Random Tree Pairs Analysis." 1991. Web. 27 May 2012. Carter, J. L.S. "Flora Sampling: Herb Plots." 1991. Web. 27 May 2012.. Carter, J. L.S. "Flora Sampling: Shrub Plots." 1991. Web. 27 May 2012.. Carter, J. L.S. "Environmental Factors." 1991. Web. 27 May 2012.. Carter, J. L.S. "Water Analysis." 1991. Web. 27 May 2012.. Hutchinson, Todd F., and John L. Vankat. "Invasibility and Effects of Amur Honeysuckle in Southwestern Ohio Forests." Society for Conservation Biology 11.5 (1997): 1117-124. Blackwell Publishing. Web. 27 May 2012.. Karlen, D. L., M. J. Mausbach, J. W. Doran, R. G. Cline, R. F. Harris, and G. E. Schuman. "Soil Quality: A Concept, Definition, and Framework For Evaluation." Soil Science Society of America Journal 61.1 (1997): 4-10. Print.

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