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Study on The Overall Diversity and Health of UC Clermont’s Environment Samuel Slone Samuel Slone Steve Washburn Steve Washburn Zachary Burns Zachary Burns.

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Presentation on theme: "Study on The Overall Diversity and Health of UC Clermont’s Environment Samuel Slone Samuel Slone Steve Washburn Steve Washburn Zachary Burns Zachary Burns."— Presentation transcript:

1 Study on The Overall Diversity and Health of UC Clermont’s Environment Samuel Slone Samuel Slone Steve Washburn Steve Washburn Zachary Burns Zachary Burns Tyler Benton Tyler Benton Table of Contents Abstract Acknowledgement Introduction Literature Review Methods and Materials Data and Results Conclusion Reference Page

2 Abstract A study was performed over a 8 week period to determine the overall diversity and health of UC Clermont’s environment. The data showed a drop in diversity in plants, invertebrates, and aquatic creatures. Less insects/plants were observed (compared to the 1998 class data) while more foreign invaders (garlic mustard and honeysuckle) are on the rise. The environment is losing minerals and the temperature in the soil seems to be rising overall as a whole. As more students attend to UC Clermont, thus, demanding more civilization; more of UC Clermont’s environment is becoming less diverse. A study was performed over a 8 week period to determine the overall diversity and health of UC Clermont’s environment. The data showed a drop in diversity in plants, invertebrates, and aquatic creatures. Less insects/plants were observed (compared to the 1998 class data) while more foreign invaders (garlic mustard and honeysuckle) are on the rise. The environment is losing minerals and the temperature in the soil seems to be rising overall as a whole. As more students attend to UC Clermont, thus, demanding more civilization; more of UC Clermont’s environment is becoming less diverse.

3 Acknowledgement Thanks to Professor Janet Stein Carte for allowing the use of the materials for this study. Without these materials, the study could not have been completed Thanks to Professor Janet Stein Carte for allowing the use of the materials for this study. Without these materials, the study could not have been completed

4 Introduction Studies have been performed on the diversity and health of environments. This study was performed on the environment of UC Clermont. Observational test were completed, test like herb and shrub plotting, invertebrate and tree surveying, water analysis, etc. were performed to gather data and help determine if UC Clermont’s environment is heavily diverse and most importantly, healthy. Studies have been performed on the diversity and health of environments. This study was performed on the environment of UC Clermont. Observational test were completed, test like herb and shrub plotting, invertebrate and tree surveying, water analysis, etc. were performed to gather data and help determine if UC Clermont’s environment is heavily diverse and most importantly, healthy.

5 Literature Review The literature most critical for the performance of the various test were the Ecology Lab Protocols (Stein-Carter 2012). The literature most critical for the performance of the various test were the Ecology Lab Protocols (Stein-Carter 2012). We found hardness by using a titration to find the PPM of CaCo3 We found hardness by using a titration to find the PPM of CaCo3 Acidity is found by testing for the pH. The usual range for water is pH is measured on a scale, 1-6 being acids, 7 being neutral, and 8-14 is a base. Acidity is found by testing for the pH. The usual range for water is pH is measured on a scale, 1-6 being acids, 7 being neutral, and 8-14 is a base. Dissolved oxygen content is also found by a titration. This is called the Winkler test. This test is a measure of the biological activity in the water. Dissolved oxygen content is also found by a titration. This is called the Winkler test. This test is a measure of the biological activity in the water.

6 Materials and Methods (M&M) Soils analysis is performed to determine the composition of the soil such as how much of it is made of clay, sand and other objects. The analysis will also show what levels the soil’s nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus content is. These tests are widely used by farmers today to determine if the soil is rich in nutrients and if the area is ideal for farming. Soil To perform soil analysis a mechanical, subjective and chemical analysis will be done. Subjective Analysis -Knead a small sample of the soil into a putty -Using your fingers form the soil into a ribbon Mechanical Analysis -Weigh out 50gm of soil -Gently pulverize in mortar -transfer to 1 liter beaker, add 5gm of Calgon and Q.s. to 900mL -Stir for 15 minutes with magnetic stirrer. -Decant “muddy” clay suspension, leaving the sand portion behind -Dry sand portion by heating on hot plate -When dry, sieve the sand through a sieve set Chemical Analysis -Use a soil test kit to test for pH, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium -Follow the procedures of the test kit and collect any samples from 2 to 3 inches below the surface. -For our results we used LaMotte’s Soil N-P-K Kit to perform our testing Reference to reference page for full methods

7 M&M Cont. Herb plots provide a square meter representation of the surrounding area. These plots are done to determine a very precise and detailed record of what living herbs, shrubs, insects and other animals are in the examined area. Then with the use of math formulas relative abundance, frequency, density and relative density to the surrounding area can be determined. Herb plots provide a square meter representation of the surrounding area. These plots are done to determine a very precise and detailed record of what living herbs, shrubs, insects and other animals are in the examined area. Then with the use of math formulas relative abundance, frequency, density and relative density to the surrounding area can be determined. Herbs Herbs The materials needed to create a shrub plot are orange flags and a measuring tape (or meter stick). The materials needed to create a shrub plot are orange flags and a measuring tape (or meter stick). To begin, start with selecting a random area. To begin, start with selecting a random area. Then using the tape measure, measure out a 1/4 by 4 meter box. Then using the tape measure, measure out a 1/4 by 4 meter box. While measuring, use the orange flags to create a perimeter. While measuring, use the orange flags to create a perimeter. Then proceed to slowly scan the area inside the box and count and record the numbers of all the living species found. Then proceed to slowly scan the area inside the box and count and record the numbers of all the living species found. Reference to reference page for full methods Reference to reference page for full methods

8 M&M Cont. Shrub plotting is an experimental procedure that will give you a 16 meter square representation of the surrounding area’s insect, plant and wildlife. The data collecting while doing shrub plots can be used to determine relative density of populations in a area along with make a record for the populations at that time. Shrub plotting is an experimental procedure that will give you a 16 meter square representation of the surrounding area’s insect, plant and wildlife. The data collecting while doing shrub plots can be used to determine relative density of populations in a area along with make a record for the populations at that time. Shrubs Shrubs The materials needed to create a shrub plot are orange flags and a measuring tape (or meter stick). The materials needed to create a shrub plot are orange flags and a measuring tape (or meter stick). To begin, start with selecting a random area. To begin, start with selecting a random area. Then using the tape measure, measure out a 4 by 4 meter box. Then using the tape measure, measure out a 4 by 4 meter box. While measuring, use the orange flags to create a perimeter. While measuring, use the orange flags to create a perimeter. Then proceed to slowly scan the area inside the box and count and record the numbers of all the living species found. Then proceed to slowly scan the area inside the box and count and record the numbers of all the living species found. Reference to reference page for full methods Reference to reference page for full methods

9 M&M An invertebrate survey was conducted according to the protocol. This survey helped quantify numbers by recording observable invertebrates in a span of time. A statistical analysis was performed to determine the density and diversity of UC Clermont’s invertebrates An invertebrate survey was conducted according to the protocol. This survey helped quantify numbers by recording observable invertebrates in a span of time. A statistical analysis was performed to determine the density and diversity of UC Clermont’s invertebrates Invertebrate Invertebrate Materials needed to perform the fauna sampling was a pen and a piece of paper to record data. Reference to reference page for full methods. Materials needed to perform the fauna sampling was a pen and a piece of paper to record data. Reference to reference page for full methods.

10 M&M Cont. An environment factor survey of wind velocity, light intensity, air temperature, relative humidity, soil temperature and wind velocity were performed according to the protocol. Gathering this data helped determine the conditions of UC Clermont’s environment and how it has effected the biotic factors. An environment factor survey of wind velocity, light intensity, air temperature, relative humidity, soil temperature and wind velocity were performed according to the protocol. Gathering this data helped determine the conditions of UC Clermont’s environment and how it has effected the biotic factors. Environment Factors Environment Factors Materials needed to perform the environmental factors lab was a light meter, sling psychrometer, squeeze bottle of water, soil thermometer, and wind speed meter. Reference to reference page for full methods. Materials needed to perform the environmental factors lab was a light meter, sling psychrometer, squeeze bottle of water, soil thermometer, and wind speed meter. Reference to reference page for full methods.

11 M&M Cont. The data sets of the water analysis will help us to observe changes that have happened here on campus. With this data we will make an ecological inference on the state of the water quality here at UC- Clermont. The main areas we will look at will be dissolved oxygen content, acidity, hardness, and chlorosity. The data sets of the water analysis will help us to observe changes that have happened here on campus. With this data we will make an ecological inference on the state of the water quality here at UC- Clermont. The main areas we will look at will be dissolved oxygen content, acidity, hardness, and chlorosity. Water Analysis To find hardness we started with 100ml. The indicator solution, Bromocresol Green- Methyl, is then added. It is then titrated with HCl untill a pink was noticeable. We then recorded the amount it took to change. We then recorded the amount it took to change, and multiplied by 5 to determine ppm of CaCo3. To find hardness we started with 100ml. The indicator solution, Bromocresol Green- Methyl, is then added. It is then titrated with HCl untill a pink was noticeable. We then recorded the amount it took to change. We then recorded the amount it took to change, and multiplied by 5 to determine ppm of CaCo3. Acidity was found by using the pH meter provided. Acidity was found by using the pH meter provided. To find the chlorosity we started with our sample, and added several drops of the indicator solution. We began a Silver Nitrate titration untill it turns red. The chlorine content is determined by the amount of the titration times divided by 50ml (sample size). To find the chlorosity we started with our sample, and added several drops of the indicator solution. We began a Silver Nitrate titration untill it turns red. The chlorine content is determined by the amount of the titration times divided by 50ml (sample size).

12 Data and Results For Inv. Dogwood GrovePond LotTotal Combine Earthworms Daddy-Long Legs Spiders Pillbugs, Sowbugs2100 Centipedes1001 Springtails Damsel-Dragon-Mayflies0101 Roaches2002 Crickets0145 WaterStriders0707 Leafhoppers. Aphids, etc.0011 Other Beetles0213 Other Butterflies0505 Craneflies1348 Other Flies2013 Ants (colonies)53311 Other Bees1078 Snail and Slugs Salamanders, toads, frogs0101 Tutles, Lizards, and snakes0101 Birds3508 Total # Animals Seen Total # Species Seen Percentage of Total Species per Location36%42%22% Percentage of Total Animals per Location33%54%13%

13 Data and Results For Env. Fac. Dogwood Grove Wet Land Maple Grass SW Parking Lot Ponds SW Corner Date Date5/1/20125/1/20125/1/20125/1/20125/1/20125/1/2012 Time Time2:303:052:403:002:533:15 Light Intensity-High Light Intensity-High Light Intensity-Medium Light Intensity-Medium Light Intensity-Low Light Intensity-Low Air Temperature-Dry (Celsius) Air Temperature-Dry (Celsius) Air Temperature-Wet (Celsius) Air Temperature-Wet (Celsius) Relative Humidity (%) Relative Humidity (%) Soil Temperature (Celsius) Soil Temperature (Celsius) Wind Velocity (mph)-Head Height Wind Velocity (mph)-Head Height Wind Velocity (mph)-Ground Height Wind Velocity (mph)-Ground Height000000

14 Data and Results For Herbs

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17 Data and Results For Shrubs

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20 Data and Results For Soil

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22 Data and Results For Water Analysis- Our Class Data South Maple Creek North Maple Creek Dogwood Grove pH Hardness 31.0 ppm 31.7 ppm 11.0 ppm Chlorosity gm Cl/ L H2O.1744 gm Cl/ L H2O Cl/ L H2O Dissolved oxygen 1.82 mg o2/ L H2O.369 mg O2/L H2O 5.87 mg O2 Aquatic Organisms 000

23 Data and Results For Water Analysis-Previous Class Data South Maple Creek North Maple Creek Dogwood Grove pH Hardness ppm ppm 62.5 Chlorosity 0.18 gm Cl/ L H2O.32 gm Cl/ L H2O 0.14 Cl/ L H2O Dissolved oxygen 8.44 mg o2/ L H2O 8.76 mg O2/L H2O.786 mg O2 Aquatic Organisms not tested 7

24 Conclusion This year the West Woods (new) area was tested for the first time. The data show that the West Woods (new) area has noticeably less variety of species than the other given areas. It seems that the mosses are thriving which is likely due to their lack of needs to survive. Garlic Mustard and Jewelweed seem to also be doing quite well. I would attribute these numbers to the Invading honeysuckle and Garlic Mustard to choking out the competition. In the future if this area continues to be plotted and observed we will be able to form a more precise reason behind these numbers. Then we may be able to find a way to stop the invaders and bring back the native species.

25 Conclusion Cont. We plotted the West Woods (new) area, which until this year had not previously been done. As shown above in the data table the average number of plants per meter squared for the area is A majority of the plants appear to be Garlic Mustard and Amur Honeysuckle. These two species are commonly known to be alien invaders to the area and as these results show seem to be reproducing quite well and out competing other native species. The Amur Honeysuckle and Japanese Honeysuckle also seems to have spread to other tested areas as well. With more research on this specific area we will be able to determine the growth rate and effect the invaders has on West Woods(new in the future.

26 Conclusion Cont. In all three places (North Maple Creek, South Maple Creek, and Dogwood Grove where pH was tested, the levels are lower than the previous class data. I conclude that this is a result in the decrease in hardness. Hardness measures the amount of CaCo3. CaCo3 is a strong base and in larger quantities will raise the pH. The calcium carbonate is most likely leeching out through the bedrock. Also the dissolved oxygen content is down across the board. This would make sense that we would see this. Our class found almost no organisms in the aquatic habitats lab. Since the oxygen content is low many organisms would most likely live somewhere else where the dissolved oxygen content is higher. While in past years many organisms were found.

27 Conclusion Cont. This year soil analysis for the Five Falls Creek area was done which gave a great record of how the soil has changed since previous year’s testing results. The average of all the samples show the majority of the soil composition is clay and that the majority or sand particles are between to millimeters. The subjective analysis confirms that the soil in the area is “clay” soil. The chemical analysis performed shows that the soil in the Five Falls Creek area is lacking and losing nutrients. The pH is 6.73, a fairly neutral state, but nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are declining. The nitrogen content which has been normally low is at a very low state this year. The phosphorus has remained in a low state for several years. The levels of potassium which has fluctuated between high to medium, seems to be on the decline. There seems to be that there is a lack of decay or something has been using more nutrients than normal. Testing of the area done next year will determine if the area is able to bounce back or if it is on the way to losing it’s ability to sustain growth.

28 Conclusion Cont. The amount of invertebrates observed (the areas of dogwood grove, Ponds, and Lot) was 200 and the amount of new species observed was 36. Compare this set of data to the data from the 1998 class of Professor Carter, you will see a large difference. The total number of animals seen was 1990 and the amount of species seen was 80 (Compatible areas). According to these set of data, there is a difference of 1700 and 44. The diversity of UC Clermont is decreasing with every passing year along with the number of animals occupying this environment. The amount of invertebrates observed (the areas of dogwood grove, Ponds, and Lot) was 200 and the amount of new species observed was 36. Compare this set of data to the data from the 1998 class of Professor Carter, you will see a large difference. The total number of animals seen was 1990 and the amount of species seen was 80 (Compatible areas). According to these set of data, there is a difference of 1700 and 44. The diversity of UC Clermont is decreasing with every passing year along with the number of animals occupying this environment. The environment factors data was obtain and analyzed. Comparing to the class data of 1998, there seems to be more light being recorded from low areas. A possible cause of that could be that there is less growth occurring in those specific areas (dogwood grove, wetlands, Ponds, and Maple Grass). With the possibility of less growth, the problem is now why? The environment factors data was obtain and analyzed. Comparing to the class data of 1998, there seems to be more light being recorded from low areas. A possible cause of that could be that there is less growth occurring in those specific areas (dogwood grove, wetlands, Ponds, and Maple Grass). With the possibility of less growth, the problem is now why? A solution to the apparent low diverse and thus low health of UC Clermont’s environment is to simply replenish it. Removing all foreign invaders like the honeysuckle and garlic mustard will allow the minerals, nutrients, and space to be utilized by native plants. With the concerns dealing with the soil (low amounts of phosphorus, nitrogen, and potassium), replenishing the soil with new minerals and replacing plants that give more than they take will benefit tremendously. Just by planting more native plants will help return the soil in a more stable and healthy state. The better stable plant environment there is, the better chance of increasing animal diversity (reference to OBIS). This all can be achieve by being proactive as a community (students, faculty and people of the community). Take time to remove unwanted visitors and establish more native plants. A solution to the apparent low diverse and thus low health of UC Clermont’s environment is to simply replenish it. Removing all foreign invaders like the honeysuckle and garlic mustard will allow the minerals, nutrients, and space to be utilized by native plants. With the concerns dealing with the soil (low amounts of phosphorus, nitrogen, and potassium), replenishing the soil with new minerals and replacing plants that give more than they take will benefit tremendously. Just by planting more native plants will help return the soil in a more stable and healthy state. The better stable plant environment there is, the better chance of increasing animal diversity (reference to OBIS). This all can be achieve by being proactive as a community (students, faculty and people of the community). Take time to remove unwanted visitors and establish more native plants.

29 Reference Page Carter, J. S. 24, May Protocols (methods and materials) Carter, J. S. 24, May Protocols (methods and materials) Carter, J. S Herb Plot Data Carter, J. S Herb Plot Data Carter, J. S Shrub Plot Data Carter, J. S Shrub Plot Data Carter, J. S Soil Analysis Data Carter, J. S Soil Analysis Data

30 Reference Page Cont. Carter, J. S Invertebrate Survey Carter, J. S Invertebrate Survey Carter, J. S Environmental Factors Carter, J. S Environmental Factors D-net Picture. D-net Picture. Sling Psychometer. Sling Psychometer. OBIS OBIS


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