Presentation on theme: "Study on the Cicada Population in the Picnic Area of the University of Cincinnati-Clermont Campus Andrew Stacy Jeff Kirby Cassandra Tartar University of."— Presentation transcript:
Study on the Cicada Population in the Picnic Area of the University of Cincinnati-Clermont Campus Andrew Stacy Jeff Kirby Cassandra Tartar University of Cincinnati Clermont Biology 303 6 June 2008 Abstract Acknowledgements Introduction Literature Review Methods and Materials Data and Results Conclusion References
Abstract A study was performed on the emerging cicada population in the picnic area of the University of Cincinnati Clermont campus. Since these cicadas only come out every 17 years, this experiment was set up to study certain facets of the emerging cicadas. This involved the determination of which trees are older by finding its Diameter at Breast Height (D.B.H.). A comparison of the quantity of cicadas found at these trees were also made. It was found that the older trees had a greater cicada population. Also, different species of trees with the same D.B.H. were also observed to have a different cicada population.
Acknowledgements Thanks to Professor Janet Stein Carter for allowing the use of the materials needed for this study. Without these materials, this study would not have been possible.
Introduction Research has shown that cicadas have been around for several years, but only periodically come out of the ground. For the group of cicadas studied, this time is about 17 years. However, some do come out early. (Carter) Using Random Pair Tree Analysis, the purpose of this experiment is to determine the trees that were around since the last group of cicadas. Also, an observation of the abundance of cicadas of the younger trees in comparison to the older trees will be performed.
Literature Review 17 year periodical cicadas take 17 years to develop and emerge in a synchronized fashion within a few days of each other. How they keep track of time is poorly understood, however data suggests that these cicadas remain accurate in the time that they emerge by counting the seasonal changes. This experiment was “performed by altering the seasonal cycles of trees supporting cicada nymphs and thereby inducing premature metamorphosis of the associated cicadas.” (Karban) This is important in that it offers an understanding of the environment affects the life cycle of the cicada. Field experiments have found that female cicadas base their oviposistion sites (where they lay their eggs) based upon the light in the environment. The more open the canopy, the higher the density of eggs laid. In contrast, females did not lay their eggs based on any sort of nutritional basis. (Yang) This provides an answer to the density of emerging cicadas found on any particular tree. In sexual pair formation of cicadas, females flick their wings in timed response to a chorusing male. A male will often try to “usurp ongoing court rituals and also engage in interference competition by acoustically obscuring the calls of potential interlopers, reducing the likelihood of a female response.” (Cooley) This research provides knowledge of how the cicadas will pair and mate to produce the next generation of periodical cicadas.
Methods and Materials Materials: Lufkin Tree tape Stanley Tape Measure Environmental Factors Data (5/20/2008) Robinair Thermometer Canon Power Shot A640 Methods: Tree DBH was measured in order to tell if the tree was over 17 years old. The DBH was measured in the same manner as outlined in the Random Pairs Tree Analysis Protocol. With the Stanley tape measure a parameter of one foot was measured from the base of the tree. The Exoskeletons where counted within the parameter and recorded.
Data and Results This information was collected in the picnic area. The exoskeleton parameter of the trees were one foot. D.B.H. stands for Diameter at Breast Height. Type of Tree D.B.H. (inches) Number of Cicadas Oak21.35500 - 600 Pine9.002 Ash A.9.00200-300 Ash B.6.3024 Maple3.750 Cherry10.00150-200
After analyzing the data, it appeared that not only did the age of tree have an effect on the number of Cicada Exoskeletons, but also the type of tree. The Pines did not seem to be of any interest to the Cicadas; where as the Oak tree seemed to be of greater interest. Temperature was also a factor on the emergence of the Cicadas, on 5/13/2008 the soil temperature in this area was below 20 o C there was no sign of any Cicada activity. Once the soil temperature reached above 200 o C, the Cicadas began to emerge.
Conclusion The past few years has seen many changes to the campus which would effect the cicada upcoming. Using the Random Pair Tree Analysis lab in determining the 17 year old trees using Stanely tape. After this determination, all the observed cicadas around the trees were counted. This information determined the 17 year old trees contained the most cicadas, while the younger trees had few to none cicadas around them. The older trees had the most cicadas around them and the largest D.B.H. The Oak tree had a D.B.H. of 21.35 inches and 500-600 cicadas. The maple tree with a D.B.H. of 3.75 inches had 0 cicadas. In addition, the type of tree appeared to have a role as well. The Pine and Ash A tree, both with a D.B.H. of 9 inches, had a different amount of cicadas. The Pine had 2 cicadas while Ash A had 200-300 cicadas.
References Carter, J.S. 2 November 2004. Periodical Cicadas. http://biology.clc.uc.edu/steincarter/cicadas.htm Cooley, J., Marshall, D. July 1, 2001 Sexual Signaling in Periodical Cicadas, Magicicada spp. (Hemiptera: Cicadidae). Behaviour 7 (138):827-855. Behaviour Karban, R., Black, C.A, Weinbaum, S.A.1 July 2000. How 17- year cicadas keep track of time. Ecology Letters 3 (4):253–256 Yang, L.H. 7 December 2006. Periodical cicadas use light for oviposition site selection. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 1604 (273): 2993-3000.