Presentation on theme: "Why Use Native Plants? They provide Florida’s wildlife with food and shelter. They are more likely to survive Florida’s climate (cost effective landscaping)."— Presentation transcript:
Why Use Native Plants? They provide Florida’s wildlife with food and shelter. They are more likely to survive Florida’s climate (cost effective landscaping). Many are attractive! They are slower growers and require less maintenance (watering, fertilizing, pesticides applications, pruning, etc.). They are appropriate choices for soil erosion & beach stabilization.
What Are Florida Native Plants? Those species in Florida prior to European contact, according to best scientific and historical evidence. Species understood as indigenous, occurring in natural associations in habitats that existed prior to significant human impacts and alterations of the landscape.
Zamia floridana, “Coontie” The first people known to eat this plant are the Calusa, Tacobaga and Timucua Indians. “Coontie” is one of the names the Seminoles had for this plant and it roughly means “flour root.” Around 1845, several factories started by white men to produce starch from the “Coontie.” Their name for this plant was “Arrow Root.”
Coccoloba uvifera, “Sea Grape” Were once used for everything from medicine to furniture to food. Sap or resin from the tree (called “kino”) has been used in the process of tanning & dying and as an astringent for wounds.
Coccoloba uvifera, “Sea Grape” (cont.) A tea can be made from the roots, leaves, and bark to treat hoarseness, asthma, hemorrhaging, and diarrhea. Cabinets and furniture have been made from the wood of the tree, and the leaves may have served as a substitute for paper. Fruit
Ilex vomitoria, “Yaupon holly” “Yaupon holly” is one of the few plants native to North America that contains the ingredient caffeine. It is concentrated in the leaves in Spring. Native societies collected these leaves and roasted them, steeped the leaves in hot water. This is the making of the “The Black Drink” used as a ceremonial drink. Some tribes brewed a concentrated concoction that was used for cleansing - caused increased sweating and vomiting.
Bibliography Hudson, Charles (editor). 1979. The Black Drink: A Native American Tea. University of Georgia Press. Athens. Milanich, Jerald T., Florida Indians and the Invasion from Europe. University Press of Florida: Gainesville. 1995. Small J. 1921. Seminole bread - The coonti. Journal of The New York Botanical Garden (22). Ward, D. B. (editor). Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida, Vol. 5. University Press of Florida: Gainesville. 1997.
So Important! Feeding Our Wildlife With Native Plants Habitat Destruction Spread of Invasive Plants Chemical Pesticides Our Wildlife Is On Decline Due To:
Thousands of years ago … Florida Native Plants grew naturally … Wildlife had plenty to eat. Native Plants are naturally adapted to our Florida climate and soil. The plants stay healthy and abundant. Native Plants thrive on available rainfall They make use of nutrients found in Florida soil … Not man- made fertilizers Native Plants don’t need pesticides … Nature takes care of itself. Example … Ladybugs attack aphids, scale insects, spider mites and other pests. What Are Florida Native Plants
Plant Suggestions Beautyberry Callicarpa americana Mockingbirds eat the purple fruit Black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirta Nectar for Insects Tickseed Coreopsis Nectar for Butterflies & Birds eat the Seeds Planting Native Plants Provides Food For Pollinators BeesBirdsButterflies Many plants provide wildlife shelter in undergrowth and leaves
Beautyberry Callicarpa americana Small to Medium Evergreen 4-6 ft. high – Full Sun or Part Shade Flowers in Spring - Autumn In Your Own Backyard! Birds & Butterflies Will Enjoy This Shrub Mockingbird Our State Bird The Berries of Beautyberry Are a Real Treat For These Birds! Butterflies Sip the Nectar!
Black-Eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirta Annual, Biennial Short-Lived Perennial 1-3 ft. tall Full Sun/Part Shade Flowers – Spring through Autumn Attracts: Bees Birds - Seeds Butterflies - Nectar Native Plant helps maintain a population of pollinators in your yard. Enjoy Nature In Your Own Backyard!
Tickseeds Coreopsis leevenworthii Full Sun/Part Shade In Moist/Sandy Soil Attracts: Birds - Seeds Bees - Nectar Butterflies - Nectar Once established, this plant will return year after year from self- sown seeds! Enjoy Nature! Wonderful Things Happen When You Grow Native Plants! Salt Tolerance Medium Our State Wildflower Flowers Most of Year
Black, Red and White Mangroves Three mangroves occur in Florida: Black (over 65 feet tall, dark & scaly bark); Red (tallest, over 80 feet, prop & drop roots, gray bark); and White Mangroves (up to 50 feet tall, shrub/tree).
Black Mangrove Over 65 feet tall, dark & scaly bark
Red Mangrove Tallest, over 80 feet, prop & drop roots, gray bark
Historically Uses Firewood Charcoal Tannin (derived from the bark and used for tanning animal skins to make leather).
Why Mangroves Are Important? They help prevent soil erosion and reduce wind/storm surge damage to coastal structures. They provide habitat and food for many types of animals (fish, birds, etc.). (“Coon” oysters cling to the roots, in the Ft. Meyers, everglades areas.) They improve water quality.
Where Red Mangroves Grow They survive in brackish water along shores, inland rivers and creeks, where dense growths stand high on stilted roots (tap roots) well out into the water. (They can grow in freshwater, too.)
Facts The mangrove is a protected species! Its’ survival was uncertain due to advancing and invasive development, as well as invasive species.
Mangrove Sources The Biology of the Trees Native to Tropical Florida, by P. B. Thomilson, 1980. Rhizphoraceae, p. 320 Florida Trees, by Ethel Synder, Sanibel, FL. page 84. Florida 4-H Forest Ecology: Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) at http://www.sfrc.ufl.edu/4h/Red_mangrove/redmangr.htm Center for Wetlands at the University of Florida: Common Wetland Plants of Florida at http://www.cfw.ufl.edu/Macrophytes.htm Homeowner Guide for Trimming Mangroves in Pinellas County at http://www.pinellascounty.org/environment/pagesHTML/pdfs/MangroveLay. pdf Newfound Harbor Marine Institute - Marine Science Educational Center based in the Florida Keys: Mangroves at http://www.nhmi.org/mangroves/index.htm Florida's Mangroves - "Walking Trees:" Department of Environmental Protection Pamphlet at http://www.floridaplants.com/horticulture/mangrove.htm
Drought and Salt Tolerant Native Plants Handout was adapted from: Florida's Best Native Landscape Plants: 200 Readily Available Species for Homeowners and Professionals by Gil Nelson. (Copyright 2003 by AFNN, Association of Florida Native Nurseries) University Press of Florida: Gainesville, FL. 412 pages; $34.95. This book is beautifully illustrated and has many quality photographs. Phonetic pronunciations provided.
Drought and Salt Tolerant Tree “Sweet Acacia” (Acacia farnesiana). Specimen tree or barrier shrub. Up to 15’ tall or more. Thorny, multi- stemmed, dense zigzag branches. Bright yellow fragrant flowers, November to February. Fruit is a long woody pod, 2 to 3 inches, with brown seeds. Lives less than 30 years. Likes alkaline soil. Don’t over-water. Zone 9 - 11.
Drought and Salt Tolerant Shrub “Coontie” (Zamia pumila). Evergreen cycad (cone bearer) with females and males on different plants. From 1 to 4 feet tall and as wide, or wider than tall. Flowers in Spring. Fruit ripens in Autumn to Winter. If they become infected with scale, cut back to ground for new growth. Don't over water. Zone 8 – 11.
Drought (Not Salt) Tolerant Palm “Scrub Palmetto” (Sabal etonia). Evergreen, shrub- like palm with stems 3’ long, fan-shaped fronds up to 3’ wide, and subterranean trunk. Flowers along many stalks Spring to Summer. Small, shiny bluish black berries Summer to Fall. Lives well over 100 years! Zone 9 - 11.
Drought and Salt Tolerant Grass “Sea Oats” (Uniola paniculata). Large rhizomatous grass. Grows 3 to 6 feet tall. Flowers in Spring to Autumn. Needs to be planted close to the coast in deep sand. Zone 6 – 10.
Drought and Salt Tolerant Wildflower “Blanket Flower, Indian Blanket, or Gaillardia” (Gaillardia pulchella). Can cause dermatitis in sensitive individuals. Taprooted annual or perennial. Grows to 1 to 2 feet tall and 1 ½ times as wide. Flowers in Spring to Summer. Remove spent seeds and older plants. Zone 8 – 11.
Drought and Salt Tolerant Vine “Beach Morning Glory” (Ipomoea imperati). Smooth, fleshy spreading (through rhizomes) but non-climbing vine. Grows to about 6 inches tall. Flowers in Spring to Autumn. Can be use as a groundcover or lawn substitute (if you have sandy areas in the lawn). Zone 8 – 10.
Drought and Salt Tolerant Ground Cover “Golden Creeper” (Ernodea littoralis). Grows to 1 to 2 feet tall and up to 3 times as wide. Flowers year- round. Good erosion control. Don't over water. Zone 9 – 11.
References 1. A Gardener's Guide to Florida Native Plants by Rufino Osorio. (Copyright 2001 by Board of Regents of the State of Florida). University Press of Florida: Gainesville, FL. 347 pages; $26.95. 2. Florida's Best Native Landscape Plants: 200 Readily Available Species for Homeowners and Professionals by Gil Nelson. (Copyright 2003 by AFNN, Association of Florida Native Nurseries) University Press of Florida: Gainesville, FL. 412 pages; $34.95. 3. Florida Wildflowers in Their Natural Communities by Walter Kingsley Taylor. (Copyright 2001 by Board of Regents of the State of Florida). University Press of Florida: Gainesville, FL. 370 pages; $24.95.
Why Use Native Plants? Because they... are naturally adapted to Florida. provide food and shelter for wildlife native to Florida, as well as migrating animals. require less maintenance. Spend your time enjoying them! prevent soil erosion & aid in beach stabilization. many are attractive! Florida Thatch Palm Drought & Salt Tolerant, Zone 11