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12: Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

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Presentation on theme: "12: Gymnosperms and Angiosperms"— Presentation transcript:

1 12: Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
Non-flowering Angiosperms: Flowering plants

2 GYMNOSPERMS Gymnosperm means “naked seed”
Seeds lack a protective enclosure (unlike flowering plants which have flowers and fruit). Examples of gymnosperms: Conifers (pine trees), cycads, ginkgo biloba

3 Evolution of gymnosperms
Gymnosperms evolved from fern-like ancestors Advancements of gymnosperms over ferns: Gymnosperms do not depend on water for fertilization (have air-borne pollen) Have a more efficient vascular system

4 Wood produced by gymnosperms
Gymnosperms have a very efficient and effective vascular system Usually woody plants

5 Gymnosperms Conifers are most important group of gymnosperms
Largest and most familiar group Bear seeds in cones Do not produce flowers or fruit

6 Gymnosperms Mainly woody plants that include
Oldest living trees: bristlecone pine, yrs old! Most massive trees (giant sequoia): up to 375 ft. tall, 41 ft wide! Tallest living trees (redwoods)

7 Conifers Conifers adapted to temperate to cold regions
Narrow leaves (needles) help to conserve water Covered by resins – for protection from predators, fire, etc.

8 Other gymnosperms Cycads – short shrubs, native to tropical regions (look like palms) Ginkgo biloba – a “living fossil”, male and female tree, used as a medicinal plant

9 Other gymnosperms Welwitschia – a bizarre gymnosperm plant that grows in Namib desert (So. Africa). Live up to 2000 years in these extreme conditions! Only makes two leaves throughout its life. It takes water from sea mist

10 Significance of gymnosperms
Ecological importance: Provide food and habitat for wildlife Forests prevent soil erosion Reduce greenhouse-effect gasses Economic and commercial importance: Lumber for wood, paper, etc. Resins – wood, furniture, etc. Ornamental plants (trees, landscaping) Food – pine nuts (pesto, etc.)

11 ANGIOSPERMS Angiosperm means “covered seed” Have flowers
Have fruits with seeds Live everywhere – dominant plants in the world 260,000 species (88% of Plant Kingdom) Angiosperms are the most successful and advanced plants on earth

12 Evolution of Angiosperms
Advancements over gymnosperms: Angiosperms have flowers – use pollin Fruits and seeds

13 Flowers, Fruit, Protected Seeds

14 Uses of Angiosperms Lumber: Hardwoods- furniture and flooring
Food: sugar cane, roots of carrots, leaves of lettuce, and stalk and flowers of broccoli. Fruits: Bananas, Apples, Oranges, Tomatoes Grains: Wheat, Corn and Rice Drinks: Tea, Coffee, Cola or Cocoa Clothing: Cotton, Ramie Rubber with until produce synthetically was derived from the rubber tree. Drugs: Medicines

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