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Nursery Pest Management Calendar Kris Braman University of Georgia.

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1 Nursery Pest Management Calendar Kris Braman University of Georgia

2 The Nursery Pest Management Calendar Provides optimal scouting and treatment timing for more than two dozen key insect and mite pests of nursery plants Provides optimal scouting and treatment timing for more than two dozen key insect and mite pests of nursery plants Provides a pest identification guide and discusses biology and management Provides a pest identification guide and discusses biology and management Is organized by major plant groups and by individual pest or pest group Is organized by major plant groups and by individual pest or pest group Provides an identification guide for beneficial insects in the nursery Provides an identification guide for beneficial insects in the nursery Updated chemical control options can be found at CAES web site Updated chemical control options can be found at CAES web site

3 Nursery Pest Management Calendar Plants Azalea/Rhododendron Azalea/Rhododendron Boxwood Boxwood Butterfly bush Butterfly bush Camelia Camelia Coreopsis Coreopsis Columbine Columbine Crapemyrtle Crapemyrtle Dogwood Dogwood Gardenia Gardenia Holly Holly Juniper Juniper Lantana Lantana Maple Maple Oak Oak Oenothera Oenothera

4 Pests in the Calendar Azalea lace bug Azalea lace bug Azalea leaf miner Azalea leaf miner Southern red mite Southern red mite Cranberry rootworm Cranberry rootworm Strawberry rootworm Strawberry rootworm Azalea bark scale Azalea bark scale Azalea caterpillar Azalea caterpillar Boxwood leafminer Boxwood leafminer Boxwood psyllid Boxwood psyllid Two spotted spider mite Two spotted spider mite Tea scale Tea scale Altica flea beetles Altica flea beetles Japanese beetles Japanese beetles Asian ambrosia beetle Asian ambrosia beetle Dogwood borer Dogwood borer Cottony maple scale Cottony maple scale Dogwood twig borer Dogwood twig borer Dogwood clubgall midge Dogwood clubgall midge

5 Pests in the Calendar Citrus whitefly Citrus whitefly Cottony cushion scale Cottony cushion scale Holly leafminer Holly leafminer Euonymus scale Euonymus scale Florida wax scale Florida wax scale Two lined spittlebug Two lined spittlebug Spruce spider mite Spruce spider mite Two spotted spider mite Two spotted spider mite Juniper scale Juniper scale Flat headed apple tree borer Flat headed apple tree borer Aphids Aphids Orange striped oakworm Orange striped oakworm Obscure scale Obscure scale Lecanium scale Lecanium scale Maple bladder gall Maple bladder gall

6 Key Pests of Azalea/Rhododendron Azalea lace bug Azalea lace bug Azalea leaf miner Azalea leaf miner Southern red mite Southern red mite Cranberry rootworm Cranberry rootworm Strawberry rootworm Strawberry rootworm Azalea bark scale Azalea bark scale Azalea caterpillar Azalea caterpillar

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8 Azalea Lace Bug (Stephanitis pyrioides ) Azalea lace bug adult Azalea lace bug eggs

9 Azalea Lace Bug (Stephanitis pyrioides) Adults are 1/8 inch long. The transparent wings are held flat on the back. Their wings are lacy with two grayish-brown cross-bands connected in the middle. Nymphs are mostly black and spiny. The flask-shaped eggs are partially embedded in leaf tissue and often are covered with a black tar-like secretion. There are four generations a year. Eggs overwinter in leaf tissue. Lace bug adults and nymphs live and feed on the underside of leaves. Adults are 1/8 inch long. The transparent wings are held flat on the back. Their wings are lacy with two grayish-brown cross-bands connected in the middle. Nymphs are mostly black and spiny. The flask-shaped eggs are partially embedded in leaf tissue and often are covered with a black tar-like secretion. There are four generations a year. Eggs overwinter in leaf tissue. Lace bug adults and nymphs live and feed on the underside of leaves. Scout for eggs in February and look for the first signs of damage on plants in full sun or in protected areas beginning in March and continuing throughout the summer. Look for white stippling on older leaves. Turn stippled leaves over to find lace bug stages and black fecal spots. Examine lace bug eggs with a hand lens for signs of parasitism (a round hole in the top of the egg) and look for predators. Scout for eggs in February and look for the first signs of damage on plants in full sun or in protected areas beginning in March and continuing throughout the summer. Look for white stippling on older leaves. Turn stippled leaves over to find lace bug stages and black fecal spots. Examine lace bug eggs with a hand lens for signs of parasitism (a round hole in the top of the egg) and look for predators. Time insecticide applications for the presence of the first generation nymphs Time insecticide applications for the presence of the first generation nymphs

10 Parasitic wasp that attacks and kills lace bug eggs Parasitized lace bug egg next to leaf midrib. Wasp has chewed a circular hole in the lace bug egg and emerged Mymarid wasp next to An azalea leaf hair

11 Azalea plant bug adult and nymph, a predator that feeds on lace bugs, thrips, other small insects and pollen

12 Southern Red Mite (Oligonychus ilicis) Adults are ½ mm long, oval, purplish, or reddish, with eight legs. The red eggs overwinter on the undersides of leaves. There are several generations each year. Most activity occurs in spring and fall. Adults are ½ mm long, oval, purplish, or reddish, with eight legs. The red eggs overwinter on the undersides of leaves. There are several generations each year. Most activity occurs in spring and fall. This imported spider mite has a wide host range, but prefers broad-leaved evergreens in the Ericaceae and Aquifoliaceae. It is common on azalea, camelia, rhododendron, mountain laurel, holly, rose, viburnum, firethorn, and yew. This imported spider mite has a wide host range, but prefers broad-leaved evergreens in the Ericaceae and Aquifoliaceae. It is common on azalea, camelia, rhododendron, mountain laurel, holly, rose, viburnum, firethorn, and yew. Examine plants closely for signs of stippling and the various mite stages on the lower and upper leaf surfaces of broadleaved evergreens in early spring and the fall. When stippling is noticed, tap leaves over white paper to dislodge and count mites, as well as the beneficial insects and predaceous mites. Predaceous mites have longer legs than the southern red mite and move much faster. Look for red overwintering eggs on the lower surface of leaves from November through early spring. Examine plants closely for signs of stippling and the various mite stages on the lower and upper leaf surfaces of broadleaved evergreens in early spring and the fall. When stippling is noticed, tap leaves over white paper to dislodge and count mites, as well as the beneficial insects and predaceous mites. Predaceous mites have longer legs than the southern red mite and move much faster. Look for red overwintering eggs on the lower surface of leaves from November through early spring. Application of a dormant oil to the lower surface of leaves when overwintering eggs are numerous will help reduce spring populations. In light infestations, the use of a horticultural oil or insecticidal soap will control these mites with minimal impact on beneficial organisms. When heavy infestations of mites are present, the application of residual miticides often is necessary Application of a dormant oil to the lower surface of leaves when overwintering eggs are numerous will help reduce spring populations. In light infestations, the use of a horticultural oil or insecticidal soap will control these mites with minimal impact on beneficial organisms. When heavy infestations of mites are present, the application of residual miticides often is necessary

13 Southern Red Mite

14 Azalea Leafminer (Caloptilia azaleella) Adult moths are about 3/8 inch long with wings folded. They are yellowish brown with purple markings on the wings and stand at a 60 angle when at rest. Mature larvae are about ½ inch long and yellowish brown. There are two generations a year. Pupae overwinter in leaf mines (tunnels the larvae create when they feed on tissue between leaf surfaces). Look for blotch mines in April or May. Curled leaf tips in June indicate completion of the first generation. Second generation blotch mines begin in July. Shake plants in late June and August to make adults fly and to estimate their numbers. Treat in May if numerous developing blotch mines are observed. Evaluate the second generation in July and retreat if needed. Adult moths are about 3/8 inch long with wings folded. They are yellowish brown with purple markings on the wings and stand at a 60 angle when at rest. Mature larvae are about ½ inch long and yellowish brown. There are two generations a year. Pupae overwinter in leaf mines (tunnels the larvae create when they feed on tissue between leaf surfaces). Look for blotch mines in April or May. Curled leaf tips in June indicate completion of the first generation. Second generation blotch mines begin in July. Shake plants in late June and August to make adults fly and to estimate their numbers. Treat in May if numerous developing blotch mines are observed. Evaluate the second generation in July and retreat if needed.

15 Azalea Leafminer (Caloptilia azaleella)

16 Azalea bark scale Plants may appear yellow and covered with black sooty mold Plants may appear yellow and covered with black sooty mold insects on twigs appear cottony or waxy insects on twigs appear cottony or waxy Treat crawlers in late April-May Treat crawlers in late April-May prune out infested plant parts prune out infested plant parts

17 Azalea caterpillar Red to brown with white and yellow stripes when small Red to brown with white and yellow stripes when small full grown have a red head and prolegs with white stripes full grown have a red head and prolegs with white stripes chemical control most effective on small caterpillars chemical control most effective on small caterpillars

18 Cranberry rootworm Small shiny black-green beetles Small shiny black-green beetles Feed at night and hide in litter during day Feed at night and hide in litter during day Remove litter and weeds from area Remove litter and weeds from area Usually most common in dense shade Usually most common in dense shade Typically a Spring pest Typically a Spring pest

19 Strawberry Rootworm

20 Strawberry rootworm, Paria fragariae The strawberry rootworm, Paria fragariae, is a pest of azaleas in production nurseries. Damage from the adult results in holes in the leaves which are unsightly. Current control methods include spraying the foliage to control adults with chlorpyrifos or carbaryl and drenching the pots to control larvae with acephate or bifenthrin. The strawberry rootworm, Paria fragariae, is a pest of azaleas in production nurseries. Damage from the adult results in holes in the leaves which are unsightly. Current control methods include spraying the foliage to control adults with chlorpyrifos or carbaryl and drenching the pots to control larvae with acephate or bifenthrin.

21 Key Pests of Boxwood Boxwood leafminer Boxwood leafminer Two spotted spider mite Two spotted spider mite Boxwood psyllid Boxwood psyllid Indian wax scale Indian wax scale European fruit lecanium European fruit lecanium Armored scales (greedy, oleander, oystershell) Armored scales (greedy, oleander, oystershell)

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23 Twospotted Spider Mite (Tretranychus urticae)

24 Adults are about 1/7 mm long, a little larger than a period on a page. They have one oval body segment with eight legs. They are greenish-yellow with a black spot on each side of the body. Eggs are white to yellow. Reddish-orange adult females overwinter in bark cracks. Adults are about 1/7 mm long, a little larger than a period on a page. They have one oval body segment with eight legs. They are greenish-yellow with a black spot on each side of the body. Eggs are white to yellow. Reddish-orange adult females overwinter in bark cracks. Spider mites have a very broad host range. They feed on conifers (see spruce spider mite on Juniper), deciduous trees and shrubs, as well as herbaceous plants. Spider mites have a very broad host range. They feed on conifers (see spruce spider mite on Juniper), deciduous trees and shrubs, as well as herbaceous plants. Spider mites suck leaf juices, causing minute white-to-yellow stipples to appear. When large spider mite populations feed, the stipples coalesce and leaves may turn white to yellow to grayish-brown and then die. Some plants are particularly susceptible to spider mite toxins, and even low populations may cause leaves to die. Spider mites suck leaf juices, causing minute white-to-yellow stipples to appear. When large spider mite populations feed, the stipples coalesce and leaves may turn white to yellow to grayish-brown and then die. Some plants are particularly susceptible to spider mite toxins, and even low populations may cause leaves to die. Look for early signs of stippling with the beginning of hot summer weather. Examine the underside of damaged leaves or tap them over white paper and look for spider mites with two spots on the body. Also look for predators, such as phytoseiid mites and lady beetles, and note their relative abundance in relation to the number of mites present. Look for early signs of stippling with the beginning of hot summer weather. Examine the underside of damaged leaves or tap them over white paper and look for spider mites with two spots on the body. Also look for predators, such as phytoseiid mites and lady beetles, and note their relative abundance in relation to the number of mites present. In dry, hot, sunny locations, this spider mite may produce one generation a week. Use horticultural oil or insecticidal soap sprays for low mite populations to conserve any beneficials present. When damage becomes objectionable, mite populations are high, and there are not beneficials, consider using a residual miticide spray. Reevaluate in one week In dry, hot, sunny locations, this spider mite may produce one generation a week. Use horticultural oil or insecticidal soap sprays for low mite populations to conserve any beneficials present. When damage becomes objectionable, mite populations are high, and there are not beneficials, consider using a residual miticide spray. Reevaluate in one week

25 Key Pests of Buddleia Two spotted spider mite Two spotted spider mite

26 Two spotted spider mite 37 Buddleia species and cultivars evaluated 37 Buddleia species and cultivars evaluated B. fallowiana ‘Alba’ and B. davidii x B. fallowiana ‘Cornwall Blue’ highly resistant to mites B. fallowiana ‘Alba’ and B. davidii x B. fallowiana ‘Cornwall Blue’ highly resistant to mites

27 Key Pests of Camelia Tea Scale Tea Scale Southern Red Mite Southern Red Mite

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29 Tea scale

30 Scale on camelia

31 Key Pests of Coreopsis Leaf beetles, Phaedon desotonis Leaf beetles, Phaedon desotonis These beetles are late winter through spring pests. Beetles can build up large numbers before being noticed. Larvae and adults feed on foliage and flower buds. These beetles are late winter through spring pests. Beetles can build up large numbers before being noticed. Larvae and adults feed on foliage and flower buds.

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33 Leaf beetle larvae feeding on foliage of lance leaf coreopsis

34 Leaf beetle adults begin feeding on coreopsis

35 Beetles are gregarious feeders and can defoliate plants rapidly

36 Coreopsis rosea defoliated by leaf beetles

37 A predaceous stink bug feeding on a leaf beetle larva on coreopsis

38 Key Pests of Columbine Columbine leafminers Columbine leafminers

39 A. canadensis is less susceptible to leafminers

40 Hawthorne lace bug Eggs Pests of Cotoneaster

41 Key Pests of Crapemyrtle Crape myrtle aphid Crape myrtle aphid Japanese beetle Japanese beetle Asian ambrosia beetle Asian ambrosia beetle Altica flea beetle Altica flea beetle

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43 PestWinter Dec- Feb SpringMar-MaySummerJun-AugFallSep-Nov CrapemyrtleaphidS Ambrosia beetle S PS SC P Japanese beetles S Altica flea beetles S Crapemyrtle Pest Management Calendar

44 Japanese Beetle (Popillia japonica) Adults are nearly ½ inch long, broadly oval, thick bodied, with coppery grown wing covers and a metallic green body. Mature larvae are nearly 1 inch long and white, with brown heads. They resemble several other scarab beetle larvae, but may be identified by the shape of the raster (an area of bare spots, hairs, and spines on the underside of the last abdominal segment). There is one generation a year. Larvae overwinter in soil. Adults are nearly ½ inch long, broadly oval, thick bodied, with coppery grown wing covers and a metallic green body. Mature larvae are nearly 1 inch long and white, with brown heads. They resemble several other scarab beetle larvae, but may be identified by the shape of the raster (an area of bare spots, hairs, and spines on the underside of the last abdominal segment). There is one generation a year. Larvae overwinter in soil. Adults of this imported scarab beetle feed on the flowers and leaves of many plants. Preferred plants include rose, crapemyrtle, maples, sycamore, birch, cottonwood, linden, mountain ash, and elms. Adults of this imported scarab beetle feed on the flowers and leaves of many plants. Preferred plants include rose, crapemyrtle, maples, sycamore, birch, cottonwood, linden, mountain ash, and elms. Look for adults on preferred hosts from early June through August. Weekly application of residual or contact insecticides to host plants in June through July will provide only partial adult control. Traps usually are counterproductive and most often call in more beetles than they trap. Use traps to time insecticide application for adults. Do not use traps for control. Look for adults on preferred hosts from early June through August. Weekly application of residual or contact insecticides to host plants in June through July will provide only partial adult control. Traps usually are counterproductive and most often call in more beetles than they trap. Use traps to time insecticide application for adults. Do not use traps for control.

45 Japanese beetle

46 Crapemyrtle Aphids

47 Asian ambrosia beetle Adult flight peaks occur in late winter and early spring

48 Altica flea beetles Often attack susceptible crape myrtles In the Spring

49 Key Pests of Dogwood Dogwood borer Dogwood borer Dogwood twig borer Dogwood twig borer Dogwood clubgall midge Dogwood clubgall midge Cottony maple scale Cottony maple scale

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51 Dogwood Borer (Synanthedon scitula) The adults are clearwing moths about 3/8 inch long. They have two gold bands on a bluish-black abdomen. The larva grows to ½ inch long and are white with a brown head and have two reddish-brown spots on the back, near the head. There is one generation a year. Larvae overwinter under bark. Adult emergence peaks around early to mid-May, but occurs continually from April to October because eggs are laid for several months. The adults are clearwing moths about 3/8 inch long. They have two gold bands on a bluish-black abdomen. The larva grows to ½ inch long and are white with a brown head and have two reddish-brown spots on the back, near the head. There is one generation a year. Larvae overwinter under bark. Adult emergence peaks around early to mid-May, but occurs continually from April to October because eggs are laid for several months. Look for brown frass around wounds and bark cracks. Remove loose bark with a knife. Larvae may be found in short tunnels under bark near wounds. Look for brown frass around wounds and bark cracks. Remove loose bark with a knife. Larvae may be found in short tunnels under bark near wounds. An early April application of a long residual insecticide to the bark should prevent infestation. An additional application may be necessary in late May. Kousa dogwood appears resistant to this borer. An early April application of a long residual insecticide to the bark should prevent infestation. An additional application may be necessary in late May. Kousa dogwood appears resistant to this borer.

52 Dogwood borer Dogwood borer

53 Cottony Maple Scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis) Adult females are about 3/16 inch long. They are black, flat, and oval. The 1/4-inch white cottony ovisac, or egg sac, is deposited on bark. Crawlers appear in June and immatures in summer on the underside of leaves. There is one generation a year. Immatures overwinter on twigs. Preferred hosts include maple, elm, hawthorn, dogwood, sycamore, poplar, and linden. Adult females are about 3/16 inch long. They are black, flat, and oval. The 1/4-inch white cottony ovisac, or egg sac, is deposited on bark. Crawlers appear in June and immatures in summer on the underside of leaves. There is one generation a year. Immatures overwinter on twigs. Preferred hosts include maple, elm, hawthorn, dogwood, sycamore, poplar, and linden. Look for white ovisacs on bark in early spring. During the summer, look on underside of leaves for flat, yellow immatures sucking sap from leaf veins where honeydew and sooty mold are found on the host plant. Look for white ovisacs on bark in early spring. During the summer, look on underside of leaves for flat, yellow immatures sucking sap from leaf veins where honeydew and sooty mold are found on the host plant. Apply dormant oils to bark to kill overwintering nymphs. Horticultural oil or insecticidal soap can be applied to leaves during the summer to control crawlers Apply dormant oils to bark to kill overwintering nymphs. Horticultural oil or insecticidal soap can be applied to leaves during the summer to control crawlers

54 Cottony Maple Scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis)

55 Key Pests of Gardenia Citrus whitefly Citrus whitefly Armored scales (tea, greedy and oleander) Armored scales (tea, greedy and oleander) Cottony cushion scale Cottony cushion scale

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57 Whitefly larvae and an adult

58 Whiteflies Adult whiteflies range from 1/16 to 1/8 inch in length. Most species resemble tiny white moths. Identification is easiest using the scale insect- like pupal stage. Adult whiteflies range from 1/16 to 1/8 inch in length. Most species resemble tiny white moths. Identification is easiest using the scale insect- like pupal stage. Whiteflies have numerous hosts, including rhododendron and azalea, ash, dogwood, sycamore, sweetgum, honey-and black locust, barberries, redbud, roses, and herbaceous plants like hibiscus and verbena, among others. Whiteflies have numerous hosts, including rhododendron and azalea, ash, dogwood, sycamore, sweetgum, honey-and black locust, barberries, redbud, roses, and herbaceous plants like hibiscus and verbena, among others. When honeydew, sooty mold, or leaf yellowing is observed, examine the underside of leaves for feeding adult and immature stages of whiteflies. Ants foraging on leaves may indicate the presence of whiteflies. When honeydew, sooty mold, or leaf yellowing is observed, examine the underside of leaves for feeding adult and immature stages of whiteflies. Ants foraging on leaves may indicate the presence of whiteflies. Rake up and destroy fallen leaves. If honeydew or damage are objectionable, spray the underside of leaves with soap or oil to conserve beneficials. Remove heavily infested leaves. Predators and parasites usually keep these pests at low levels in the landscape. In the nursery application of systemic insecticides or IGRs may be required. Rake up and destroy fallen leaves. If honeydew or damage are objectionable, spray the underside of leaves with soap or oil to conserve beneficials. Remove heavily infested leaves. Predators and parasites usually keep these pests at low levels in the landscape. In the nursery application of systemic insecticides or IGRs may be required.

59 Tea scale

60 Cottony cushion scale damage on pittosporum

61 Vedalia lady beetle larva and adult feeding on cottony cushion scale

62 Vedalia beetle larva Cottony cushion scale female with eggs

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64 Key Pests of Holly Holly leafminers Holly leafminers Florida wax scale Florida wax scale Southern red mite Southern red mite Two lined spittlebug Two lined spittlebug Armored scales (tea, oleander, greedy, euonymus, pit) Armored scales (tea, oleander, greedy, euonymus, pit)

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66 Holly Leafminer (Phytomyza ilicis) Adult flies are about 1/8 inch long and black. The larvae are 1/8 inch long yellow maggots that tunnel through leaves, creating serpentine mine. Eggs are usually deposited in the midrib or leaf margin and early mining occurs there. There is one generation a year. Larvae overwinter in mines. Hard, late frosts extend adult egg-laying activity and increase the pest population. Adult flies are about 1/8 inch long and black. The larvae are 1/8 inch long yellow maggots that tunnel through leaves, creating serpentine mine. Eggs are usually deposited in the midrib or leaf margin and early mining occurs there. There is one generation a year. Larvae overwinter in mines. Hard, late frosts extend adult egg-laying activity and increase the pest population. Summer to fall mining occurs in the midrib. The obvious, linear, yellowish-green mine in the leaf surface occurs the following spring. Several mines per leaf cause premature leaf drop. Adult females of this imported fly puncture tender new holly leaves to feed on plant juices. Summer to fall mining occurs in the midrib. The obvious, linear, yellowish-green mine in the leaf surface occurs the following spring. Several mines per leaf cause premature leaf drop. Adult females of this imported fly puncture tender new holly leaves to feed on plant juices. In heavy infestation, use systemics for larvae in March of late summer. Contact insecticides may be used for adults in early May, but this is the least desirable technique because beneficial parasites may be killed In heavy infestation, use systemics for larvae in March of late summer. Contact insecticides may be used for adults in early May, but this is the least desirable technique because beneficial parasites may be killed

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68 Two lined spittlebug

69 Twolined Spittlebug (Prosapia bicincta) Adults are about 1/4 to ½ inch long, smoky brown to black in color, broadly oval, convex, with prominent eyes. They have two bright orange stripes across their wings. Adults sometimes are called froghoppers. Nymphs are smaller, usually pale greenish-yellow, and covered by frothy bubbles called spittle. Two generations occur per year. Adults are about 1/4 to ½ inch long, smoky brown to black in color, broadly oval, convex, with prominent eyes. They have two bright orange stripes across their wings. Adults sometimes are called froghoppers. Nymphs are smaller, usually pale greenish-yellow, and covered by frothy bubbles called spittle. Two generations occur per year. The immature stages are found in turfgrass and adults may be found on numerous woody ornamentals, especially hollies. The immature stages are found in turfgrass and adults may be found on numerous woody ornamentals, especially hollies. Look for active adults beginning in early summer. The second generation of adults usually appears in August/September. If spittlebugs are coming from surrounding turf, don't allow a heavy thatch layer to accumulate in the turf. Where possible, avoid locating susceptible host plants (hollies) near centipedegrass, a favored host for nymphal development. Look for active adults beginning in early summer. The second generation of adults usually appears in August/September. If spittlebugs are coming from surrounding turf, don't allow a heavy thatch layer to accumulate in the turf. Where possible, avoid locating susceptible host plants (hollies) near centipedegrass, a favored host for nymphal development.

70 Wax scale on holly

71 Wax Scales (Japanese, Florida, or Indian wax scale) Ceroplastes spp. Adult females are about 1/4 inch long and reddish. They are covered with a gummy, white wax that look like a dunce cap. Immatures resemble cameos with the developing areas of white was not yet completely covering the reddish body. There is one generation a year. Adult females overwinter on bark. Adult females are about 1/4 inch long and reddish. They are covered with a gummy, white wax that look like a dunce cap. Immatures resemble cameos with the developing areas of white was not yet completely covering the reddish body. There is one generation a year. Adult females overwinter on bark. Wax scales feed on many shrubs and trees, but Japanese holly, Chinese holly, euonymus, boxwood, firethorn, spirea, barberry, and flowering quince are preferred. Wax scales feed on many shrubs and trees, but Japanese holly, Chinese holly, euonymus, boxwood, firethorn, spirea, barberry, and flowering quince are preferred. Large numbers of foraging bees, wasps, hornets, and ants on dense shrubs may indicate wax scale. Look for honeydew and sooty mold. Look on twigs and small branches for all wax scale stages. Crawlers begin hatching in early summer in Georgia. Large numbers of foraging bees, wasps, hornets, and ants on dense shrubs may indicate wax scale. Look for honeydew and sooty mold. Look on twigs and small branches for all wax scale stages. Crawlers begin hatching in early summer in Georgia. Beginning in May, examine female wax scales on leaves and branches every one to two weeks and determine when eggs begin to hatch. Remove heavily infested twigs or branches. Infested twigs and branches must be sprayed thoroughly with horticultural oil, insecticidal soap, or a contact or systemic insecticide after egg hatch and when crawlers are present on the plant to achieve effective control. Beginning in May, examine female wax scales on leaves and branches every one to two weeks and determine when eggs begin to hatch. Remove heavily infested twigs or branches. Infested twigs and branches must be sprayed thoroughly with horticultural oil, insecticidal soap, or a contact or systemic insecticide after egg hatch and when crawlers are present on the plant to achieve effective control.

72 EUONYMUS SCALE (Unaspis euonymi) Covers of adult females are about 1/8 inch long, brownish black, and are oyster shell shaped. Male covers are smaller, thinner, and white. Crawlers are yellowish orange and are most often found on new growth. Fertilized adult females overwinter. There are four overlapping generations a year. Covers of adult females are about 1/8 inch long, brownish black, and are oyster shell shaped. Male covers are smaller, thinner, and white. Crawlers are yellowish orange and are most often found on new growth. Fertilized adult females overwinter. There are four overlapping generations a year. Light infestations on bark cause no obvious damage. In heavy infestations, the white covers of males are easy to spot on the leaves and the leaves develop yellow spots. Light infestations on bark cause no obvious damage. In heavy infestations, the white covers of males are easy to spot on the leaves and the leaves develop yellow spots. Always examine Euonymus japonica to discover infestations before they cause damage. Carefully examine bark on a few stems to detect light infestations. Examine plants for presence of predators and parasites. Always examine Euonymus japonica to discover infestations before they cause damage. Carefully examine bark on a few stems to detect light infestations. Examine plants for presence of predators and parasites. Time application of horticultural oil, insecticidal soaps, or other contact insecticides for the presence of crawlers Time application of horticultural oil, insecticidal soaps, or other contact insecticides for the presence of crawlers

73 Euonymus scale

74 Key Pests of Juniper Spruce spider mites Spruce spider mites Bagworms Bagworms Juniper Scale Juniper Scale

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76 Spruce Spider Mite (Oligonychus ununguis) Adults are about ½ mm long. They have eight legs and are yellowish-green when young. When mature and fully fed, they are grayish-black with a tan area behind the mouthparts. Immature forms are smaller and lighter in color. Eggs are oval to circular and reddish brown. There are several generations a year. Eggs overwinter on bark and needles. Adults are about ½ mm long. They have eight legs and are yellowish-green when young. When mature and fully fed, they are grayish-black with a tan area behind the mouthparts. Immature forms are smaller and lighter in color. Eggs are oval to circular and reddish brown. There are several generations a year. Eggs overwinter on bark and needles. This cosmopolitan pest prefers spruce, pine, hemlock, and arborvitae. Cedar, yew, larch, cryptomeria, dawn redwood, fir, Douglas fir, and false cypress also may be attacked. This cosmopolitan pest prefers spruce, pine, hemlock, and arborvitae. Cedar, yew, larch, cryptomeria, dawn redwood, fir, Douglas fir, and false cypress also may be attacked. At the first sign of stippling on needles, tap branches over white paper and count the dark, slow-moving spider mites. Note the presence of white, fast-moving phytoseiid predatory mites and the minute, black lady beetle mite predators. Concentrate monitoring activities from March through June and September through November. At the first sign of stippling on needles, tap branches over white paper and count the dark, slow-moving spider mites. Note the presence of white, fast-moving phytoseiid predatory mites and the minute, black lady beetle mite predators. Concentrate monitoring activities from March through June and September through November. Spraying is not recommended unless stippling damage exceeds ten percent of green foliage; more than ten spider mites, on the average, are tapped from a tree's branches; and beneficial mites and beetles are not found in all branch samples. Use dormant oil sprays when overwintering eggs are abundant. In the growing season, use summer oil or insecticidal soap sprays if predator populations are present. Spraying is not recommended unless stippling damage exceeds ten percent of green foliage; more than ten spider mites, on the average, are tapped from a tree's branches; and beneficial mites and beetles are not found in all branch samples. Use dormant oil sprays when overwintering eggs are abundant. In the growing season, use summer oil or insecticidal soap sprays if predator populations are present.

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78 Sampling for mites; pest and predator mites

79 Juniper Scale (Carulaspis juniperi) Mature female covers are circular, white, and about 1/16 inch in diameter. Male covers are smaller, elongate, oval, and white. Shed skins incorporated into the cover are yellow. There is one generation a year. Adult females overwinter on needles. Mature female covers are circular, white, and about 1/16 inch in diameter. Male covers are smaller, elongate, oval, and white. Shed skins incorporated into the cover are yellow. There is one generation a year. Adult females overwinter on needles. This imported armored scale insect prefers juniper, but has also been collected from Leyland cypress and cedar. Yellow crawlers are present in late spring. This imported armored scale insect prefers juniper, but has also been collected from Leyland cypress and cedar. Yellow crawlers are present in late spring. Dormant oil spray will reduce the number of adults that successfully overwinter, but usually does not provide adequate control. Use horticultural oil or insecticidal soap to control crawlers in late spring. Systemic insecticides may be used to reduce heavy populations of scales in late summer and fall. Dormant oil spray will reduce the number of adults that successfully overwinter, but usually does not provide adequate control. Use horticultural oil or insecticidal soap to control crawlers in late spring. Systemic insecticides may be used to reduce heavy populations of scales in late summer and fall.

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81 Key Pests of Lantana Whitefly Whitefly Lantana lace bug Lantana lace bug

82 Whitefly and lantana lace bug 11 lantana cultivars evaluated for resistance to greenhouse and silverleaf whitefly and lantana lace bug 11 lantana cultivars evaluated for resistance to greenhouse and silverleaf whitefly and lantana lace bug Larger-leaved cultivars very susceptible and may serve as indicator plants Larger-leaved cultivars very susceptible and may serve as indicator plants

83 Key Pests of Maple Cottony Maple Scale Cottony Maple Scale Green Striped Mapleworm Green Striped Mapleworm Tip Borers Tip Borers Leafhoppers Leafhoppers Flatheaded apple tree borer Flatheaded apple tree borer Japanese beetle Japanese beetle Asian ambrosia beetle Asian ambrosia beetle Aphids Aphids

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85 Cottony Maple Scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis) Adult females are about 3/16 inch long. They are black, flat, and oval. The 1/4-inch white cottony ovisac, or egg sac, is deposited on bark. Crawlers appear in June and immatures in summer on the underside of leaves. There is one generation a year. Immatures overwinter on twigs. Preferred hosts include maple, elm, hawthorn, dogwood, sycamore, poplar, and linden. Adult females are about 3/16 inch long. They are black, flat, and oval. The 1/4-inch white cottony ovisac, or egg sac, is deposited on bark. Crawlers appear in June and immatures in summer on the underside of leaves. There is one generation a year. Immatures overwinter on twigs. Preferred hosts include maple, elm, hawthorn, dogwood, sycamore, poplar, and linden. Look for white ovisacs on bark in early spring. During the summer, look on underside of leaves for flat, yellow immatures sucking sap from leaf veins where honeydew and sooty mold are found on the host plant. Look for white ovisacs on bark in early spring. During the summer, look on underside of leaves for flat, yellow immatures sucking sap from leaf veins where honeydew and sooty mold are found on the host plant. Apply dormant oils to bark to kill overwintering nymphs. Horticultural oil or insecticidal soap can be applied to leaves during the summer to control crawlers Apply dormant oils to bark to kill overwintering nymphs. Horticultural oil or insecticidal soap can be applied to leaves during the summer to control crawlers

86 Cottony Maple Scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis)

87 Aphids Wooly aphids on Maple Aphids often attack new growth on plants early in the year

88 Flatheaded Appletree Borer (Crysobothris femorata) Adults may reach ½ inch in length. They are oval, flattened beetles, metallic greenish bronze above and brassy below. The wing covers have wavy, light-colored indentations. The white larvae, commonly called flatheaded borers, are expanded just behind the true head, which is black. There is one generation a year. Larvae overwinter in galleries inside the host plant. Adults may reach ½ inch in length. They are oval, flattened beetles, metallic greenish bronze above and brassy below. The wing covers have wavy, light-colored indentations. The white larvae, commonly called flatheaded borers, are expanded just behind the true head, which is black. There is one generation a year. Larvae overwinter in galleries inside the host plant. Preferred hosts include sycamore, red maple, silver maple, willow, oak, tuliptree poplar, elm, beech, hickory, apple, pear, dogwood, and black walnut. Preferred hosts include sycamore, red maple, silver maple, willow, oak, tuliptree poplar, elm, beech, hickory, apple, pear, dogwood, and black walnut. Larvae bore fairly large, irregular cavities in phloem tissue of the main trunk and larger branches. Young trees and trees under stress are particularly attractive to this pest. Larvae are usually found boring into the base of trees. Small trees often are killed. Larvae bore fairly large, irregular cavities in phloem tissue of the main trunk and larger branches. Young trees and trees under stress are particularly attractive to this pest. Larvae are usually found boring into the base of trees. Small trees often are killed. Adults run over bark and are quick to fly. They are most active on exposed, sunny bark of weakened trees from early March through May and early September through October. Adults run over bark and are quick to fly. They are most active on exposed, sunny bark of weakened trees from early March through May and early September through October. Maintain vigor through use of good cultural practices. If numerous adult beetles are noted on bark, spray the trunk and major branches with an approved residual insecticide Maintain vigor through use of good cultural practices. If numerous adult beetles are noted on bark, spray the trunk and major branches with an approved residual insecticide

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90 Maple Bladdergall Mite and Maple Spindlegall Mite (Vasates quadripedes and V. aceriscrumena) Adults of these two eriophyid mites are not visible without a hand lens. They live in circular and spindle- shaped galls. They are white to clear in color, 0.15 mm long, cigar-shaped with only four anterior legs. There are several generations a year. Adult forms overwinter in bark cracks. Adults of these two eriophyid mites are not visible without a hand lens. They live in circular and spindle- shaped galls. They are white to clear in color, 0.15 mm long, cigar-shaped with only four anterior legs. There are several generations a year. Adult forms overwinter in bark cracks. While control measures usually are not necessary in the landscape, pyrethroid application when leaves first flush may prevent new galls in the nursery. Where feasible, affected leaves can be removed on plants not scheduled for sale. While control measures usually are not necessary in the landscape, pyrethroid application when leaves first flush may prevent new galls in the nursery. Where feasible, affected leaves can be removed on plants not scheduled for sale.

91 Maple bladder gall

92 Key Pests of Oaks Orange striped oakworm Orange striped oakworm Lecanium scale Lecanium scale Insect galls Insect galls

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94 Obscure scale on Oak This scale has been attacked by fungus Parasite emergence holes are visible on these scale covers

95 Obscure Scale (Melanaspis obscura) Fully enlarged adult female covers may reach 1/8 inch in diameter. They are circular, brown to gray, slightly convex, with central shed skins that are black when rubbed. Male covers are smaller and broadly oval. This species develops in overlapping aggregations. There is one generation a year. Immatures overwinter and crawlers appear in July. Fully enlarged adult female covers may reach 1/8 inch in diameter. They are circular, brown to gray, slightly convex, with central shed skins that are black when rubbed. Male covers are smaller and broadly oval. This species develops in overlapping aggregations. There is one generation a year. Immatures overwinter and crawlers appear in July. Look on three to four-year-old branches for overlapping gray scale covers. Scrape off covers to determine viability of a population because covers of dead scales may remain attached. In midsummer, live adult female scales are light purple. Scout in mid-July to determine amount of crawler activity. Look under covers in the dormant season for the small, yellow immatures to see if dormant sprays are needed. Look for holes in covers to estimate level of parasitism. Look on three to four-year-old branches for overlapping gray scale covers. Scrape off covers to determine viability of a population because covers of dead scales may remain attached. In midsummer, live adult female scales are light purple. Scout in mid-July to determine amount of crawler activity. Look under covers in the dormant season for the small, yellow immatures to see if dormant sprays are needed. Look for holes in covers to estimate level of parasitism. Concentrate dormant oil sprays on three- to four-year-old growth to reduce overwintering populations. Spray summer oil in late July to kill newly settled crawlers. Several parasite species are active when the scale crawlers appear in July. Avoid synthetic insecticide sprays at this time. Concentrate dormant oil sprays on three- to four-year-old growth to reduce overwintering populations. Spray summer oil in late July to kill newly settled crawlers. Several parasite species are active when the scale crawlers appear in July. Avoid synthetic insecticide sprays at this time.

96 Orange Striped Oakworm

97 Orangestriped Oakworm (Anisota senatoria) Adult moths are about 1-1/4 inches long with wings closed. They are reddish brown, translucent, with a submarginal dark stripe and a white spot on each forewing. Mature larvae are about 1-1/2 inch long. They are black with eight orange-to-yellow stripes and two black spines behind the head. Adults first appear in early summer. Pupae overwinter in soil. Adult moths are about 1-1/4 inches long with wings closed. They are reddish brown, translucent, with a submarginal dark stripe and a white spot on each forewing. Mature larvae are about 1-1/2 inch long. They are black with eight orange-to-yellow stripes and two black spines behind the head. Adults first appear in early summer. Pupae overwinter in soil. This native notodontid moth caterpillar prefers to feed on oaks, but it also attacks hickory and birch. This native notodontid moth caterpillar prefers to feed on oaks, but it also attacks hickory and birch. The caterpillars are gregarious and early instars feed by skeletonizing the leaf surface. Older caterpillars are defoliators and may consume all but the leaf midrib. Defoliation usually occurs one branch at a time when populations are small. The caterpillars are gregarious and early instars feed by skeletonizing the leaf surface. Older caterpillars are defoliators and may consume all but the leaf midrib. Defoliation usually occurs one branch at a time when populations are small. Look for signs of localized skeletonization turning to defoliation on host tree branches. Where this species is a serious problem, a black-light trap can be used to determine the first adult appearance and the relative size of each generation. Look for signs of localized skeletonization turning to defoliation on host tree branches. Where this species is a serious problem, a black-light trap can be used to determine the first adult appearance and the relative size of each generation. Manually destroy aggregations of young larvae when they are detected on small trees. Application of Bacillus thuringiensis or horticultural oil will control young larvae. Contact insecticides often are required to control large caterpillars. Manually destroy aggregations of young larvae when they are detected on small trees. Application of Bacillus thuringiensis or horticultural oil will control young larvae. Contact insecticides often are required to control large caterpillars.

98 Oak Lecanium (Parthenolecanium quercifex) Fully developed adult females are about 1/4 inch long. They are oval to almost circular, highly convex and light to dark brown. Crawlers are pale yellow. There is one generation a year. Immatures overwinter on twigs. Fully developed adult females are about 1/4 inch long. They are oval to almost circular, highly convex and light to dark brown. Crawlers are pale yellow. There is one generation a year. Immatures overwinter on twigs.

99 Key Pests of Oenothera Altica flea beetles Altica flea beetles

100 Other insect pests Oleander aphid on Asclepias Oleander aphid on Asclepias Eastern tent caterpillar Eastern tent caterpillar Fall webworm Fall webworm

101 Oleander aphid 24 Asclepias taxa evaluated 24 Asclepias taxa evaluated Gradients in susceptibility suggest options in high density aphid areas Gradients in susceptibility suggest options in high density aphid areas

102 Oleander aphid A. tuberosa and A. physocarpa maintained better appearance A. tuberosa and A. physocarpa maintained better appearance Numerous natural enemies colonize milkweed plants with aphids Numerous natural enemies colonize milkweed plants with aphids

103 Eastern Tent Caterpillar (Malacosoma american) Adult moths are about 1 inch long. They are light brown with two white diagonal stripes across each forewing. Mature larvae may reach a length of 2 inches or more. This is the only common caterpillar with a white stripe down the back. There is one generation a year. Pupae overwinter in cocoons in debris on the ground. Adult moths are about 1 inch long. They are light brown with two white diagonal stripes across each forewing. Mature larvae may reach a length of 2 inches or more. This is the only common caterpillar with a white stripe down the back. There is one generation a year. Pupae overwinter in cocoons in debris on the ground. Silken webs in tree forks at budbreak are indicative of this pest. In peak population years, preferred hosts can be defoliated. Silken webs in tree forks at budbreak are indicative of this pest. In peak population years, preferred hosts can be defoliated. Look for the black 3/4 inch-long egg masses on preferred hosts in the dormant season. Look for silken webs in the branch forks of preferred hosts in early March. Look for the black 3/4 inch-long egg masses on preferred hosts in the dormant season. Look for silken webs in the branch forks of preferred hosts in early March. Prune out the egg masses during the dormant season. Mechanically destroy the web contents when first discovered. Time insecticide application for the presence of young larvae. Prune out the egg masses during the dormant season. Mechanically destroy the web contents when first discovered. Time insecticide application for the presence of young larvae.

104

105 Fall Webworm (Hyphantria cunea) Adult moths are about 3/4 inch long with wings folded. Wings are all white or white with black spots. Bases of front legs are orange-yellow. Mature larvae are about 1 inch long and may occur in two color forms: those with black heads are yellowish white and those with red heads are brown. Both forms have paired black tubercles running down the back. They are covered with long, silky gray hairs. There are four generations a year. Pupae overwinter in flimsy cocoons in protected places. Adult moths are about 3/4 inch long with wings folded. Wings are all white or white with black spots. Bases of front legs are orange-yellow. Mature larvae are about 1 inch long and may occur in two color forms: those with black heads are yellowish white and those with red heads are brown. Both forms have paired black tubercles running down the back. They are covered with long, silky gray hairs. There are four generations a year. Pupae overwinter in flimsy cocoons in protected places. Preferred hosts include mulberry, walnut, hickory, elm, sweet gum, poplar, willow, oak, linden, ash, and apple and other fruit trees. Preferred hosts include mulberry, walnut, hickory, elm, sweet gum, poplar, willow, oak, linden, ash, and apple and other fruit trees. The caterpillars produce a "web" of fine silk over terminals. They feed inside the silken web, which they enlarge to take in more foliage as they grow. The caterpillars produce a "web" of fine silk over terminals. They feed inside the silken web, which they enlarge to take in more foliage as they grow. In early spring, examine the south side of tree crowns for the first signs of webbing over terminals. Insecticides must penetrate the" nests" to provide good control In early spring, examine the south side of tree crowns for the first signs of webbing over terminals. Insecticides must penetrate the" nests" to provide good control

106

107 Key Beneficial Insects Lady beetles Lady beetles Ground beetles Ground beetles Tiger beetles Tiger beetles Rove beetles Rove beetles Syrphid flies Syrphid flies Long-legged flies Long-legged flies Robber flies Robber flies Spined soldier bugs Spined soldier bugs Predaceous damsel bugs Predaceous damsel bugs Minute pirate bugs Minute pirate bugs Predaceous plant bugs Predaceous plant bugs Assassin bugs Assassin bugs Big-eyed bugs Big-eyed bugs Green lacewings Green lacewings Brown lacewings Brown lacewings Parasitic wasps Parasitic wasps Parasitic flies Parasitic flies

108 Predatory beetles

109 Ground Beetles (Carabidae) are predaceous as adults and as larvae. There are some seed feeding species. They are active on the ground primarily at night. Adult beetles vary in size from 1/4 to 1 inch or longer. Many species are metallic, while others are plain brown or black. Ground Beetles (Carabidae) are predaceous as adults and as larvae. There are some seed feeding species. They are active on the ground primarily at night. Adult beetles vary in size from 1/4 to 1 inch or longer. Many species are metallic, while others are plain brown or black. Lady Beetles (Coccinellidae) are among our most important beneficials. Adults and larvae feed on aphids, scale insects, mites, mealybugs, other soft-bodied insects and their eggs. Lady beetle adults are oval-shaped. Most are orange or reddish with black markings. Lady Beetles (Coccinellidae) are among our most important beneficials. Adults and larvae feed on aphids, scale insects, mites, mealybugs, other soft-bodied insects and their eggs. Lady beetle adults are oval-shaped. Most are orange or reddish with black markings. Lady beetle larvae are elongate, covered with spines, and dorso-ventrally flattened. Often they are brightly colored with spots. Some larvae are covered with white waxy secretion like mealybugs. Adults and larvae are voracious feeders on aphids, a single individual consuming hundreds of aphids during its lifetime. Lady beetle larvae are elongate, covered with spines, and dorso-ventrally flattened. Often they are brightly colored with spots. Some larvae are covered with white waxy secretion like mealybugs. Adults and larvae are voracious feeders on aphids, a single individual consuming hundreds of aphids during its lifetime. Rove beetles (Staphylinidae) have shortened elytra (wing covers) that leave the segments of the abdomen visible giving these beetles their characteristic appearance. Most species are slender and elongate from 1/16- 1/2 inch long. Typically they are reddish-brown to black. Many species are predaceous, some feed on decaying organic matter helping to recycle needed nutrients in the landscape. Rove beetles (Staphylinidae) have shortened elytra (wing covers) that leave the segments of the abdomen visible giving these beetles their characteristic appearance. Most species are slender and elongate from 1/16- 1/2 inch long. Typically they are reddish-brown to black. Many species are predaceous, some feed on decaying organic matter helping to recycle needed nutrients in the landscape. Tiger Beetles (Cicindellidae) are very active, often metallic beetles 1/2- 3/4 inch long. They are difficult to collect because of the speed with which they run or fly. Larvae live in burrows in the soil and ambush prey as it goes by. Tiger Beetles (Cicindellidae) are very active, often metallic beetles 1/2- 3/4 inch long. They are difficult to collect because of the speed with which they run or fly. Larvae live in burrows in the soil and ambush prey as it goes by.

110 Earwigs

111 Earwigs (Dermaptera) Many species are predaceous. Earwigs vary in size, some of the larger species are 3/4-1 inch long. They are usually brown and may have stripes. Many species are predaceous. Earwigs vary in size, some of the larger species are 3/4-1 inch long. They are usually brown and may have stripes.

112 Predators in the “True Bug” group

113 True Bugs (Hemiptera) is a group that contains several generalist predator species. These insects all have piercing-sucking mouthparts which they use to impale their prey and extract fluid. The beak is usually carried beneath the body, but can be pointed forward or downward while feeding. The usual prey for these insects are other soft- bodied insects of small to intermediate size. Representatives of these predators include : True Bugs (Hemiptera) is a group that contains several generalist predator species. These insects all have piercing-sucking mouthparts which they use to impale their prey and extract fluid. The beak is usually carried beneath the body, but can be pointed forward or downward while feeding. The usual prey for these insects are other soft- bodied insects of small to intermediate size. Representatives of these predators include : Assassin Bugs (Reduviidae) generally appear oval or elongate and are often black and orange-red or brown. They are larger than most of the other predaceous bugs, especially the giant wheel bug. Assassin bugs have a head that has a particularly long and narrow appearance. They feed on most other insects and will inflict a painful bite if handle Assassin Bugs (Reduviidae) generally appear oval or elongate and are often black and orange-red or brown. They are larger than most of the other predaceous bugs, especially the giant wheel bug. Assassin bugs have a head that has a particularly long and narrow appearance. They feed on most other insects and will inflict a painful bite if handle Big-Eyed Bugs (Lygaeidae) are stout bodied insects, about 1/8 inch long with prominent eyes that give the insect its name. These insects are slightly larger than chinch bugs. They may have similar coloration, but are always broader across the head than the area just behind (shoulders). Chinch bugs, on the other hand, have a narrow head, never broader than the area directly behind. Often big-eyed bugs can be found with populations of chinch bugs and it is important to be able to distinguish predator from pest. Big-eyed bugs also feed on caterpillars and insect eggs. Big-Eyed Bugs (Lygaeidae) are stout bodied insects, about 1/8 inch long with prominent eyes that give the insect its name. These insects are slightly larger than chinch bugs. They may have similar coloration, but are always broader across the head than the area just behind (shoulders). Chinch bugs, on the other hand, have a narrow head, never broader than the area directly behind. Often big-eyed bugs can be found with populations of chinch bugs and it is important to be able to distinguish predator from pest. Big-eyed bugs also feed on caterpillars and insect eggs. Minute Pirate Bugs (Anthocoridae) are 1/8 - 1/4 inch long. These insects are black and white as adults and have colorful yellow-orange-brown nymphs depending upon instar. Gardeners notice the painful bite that this small insect produces. It is an effective predator of thrips and the eggs of many insect and mite species. Minute Pirate Bugs (Anthocoridae) are 1/8 - 1/4 inch long. These insects are black and white as adults and have colorful yellow-orange-brown nymphs depending upon instar. Gardeners notice the painful bite that this small insect produces. It is an effective predator of thrips and the eggs of many insect and mite species. Predaceous Damsel Bugs (Nabidae) are 1/8 - 3/8 inch long and may be cream colored to dark brown to black depending on the species. The most common species are slender, elongate insects that are most active in mid summer. They feed on eggs and immature stages of many pest insects. Predaceous Damsel Bugs (Nabidae) are 1/8 - 3/8 inch long and may be cream colored to dark brown to black depending on the species. The most common species are slender, elongate insects that are most active in mid summer. They feed on eggs and immature stages of many pest insects. Predaceous Plant Bugs (Miridae) are less well known than other predaceous true bugs, but have been shown to be active predators of thrips, lace bugs, aphids, moth eggs and other insects of importance in the landscape. Predaceous Plant Bugs (Miridae) are less well known than other predaceous true bugs, but have been shown to be active predators of thrips, lace bugs, aphids, moth eggs and other insects of importance in the landscape.

114 Predatory flies

115 Long-Legged Flies (Dolichopodidae) are small, about 1/4 inch with very long legs in relation to the body and usually metallic blue or green in color. Adults and larvae are predaceous and are often found near woodland streams or other wet areas. Predaceous Midges (Cecidomyiidae) Most members of this group are gall makers on plants but there are some predaceous members of the family that feed on aphids. These larvae look much like syrphid larvae, but smaller. Long-Legged Flies (Dolichopodidae) are small, about 1/4 inch with very long legs in relation to the body and usually metallic blue or green in color. Adults and larvae are predaceous and are often found near woodland streams or other wet areas. Predaceous Midges (Cecidomyiidae) Most members of this group are gall makers on plants but there are some predaceous members of the family that feed on aphids. These larvae look much like syrphid larvae, but smaller. Robber Flies (Asilidae) are 3/ /4 inch long and vary in appearance. Some are quite stout while others are long and slender. The face is usually bearded and the head is hollowed out between the eyes. Adults are predaceous on many kinds of insects and usually capture their prey in the air. Larvae are soil-dwelling and predaceous on such things as white grubs. Robber Flies (Asilidae) are 3/ /4 inch long and vary in appearance. Some are quite stout while others are long and slender. The face is usually bearded and the head is hollowed out between the eyes. Adults are predaceous on many kinds of insects and usually capture their prey in the air. Larvae are soil-dwelling and predaceous on such things as white grubs. Syrphid Flies (Syrphidae) are sometimes called flower flies because they are commonly found on flowers or hover flies for their behavior in flight. Most of these flies are yellow with brown or black bands on the abdomen. Some resemble wasps, many mimic bees. Syrphid Flies (Syrphidae) are sometimes called flower flies because they are commonly found on flowers or hover flies for their behavior in flight. Most of these flies are yellow with brown or black bands on the abdomen. Some resemble wasps, many mimic bees. Syrphid larvae are maggot-like and predaceous on aphids and other soft- bodied insects. They have no legs or visible head capsule and are translucent. Syrphid larvae are maggot-like and predaceous on aphids and other soft- bodied insects. They have no legs or visible head capsule and are translucent.

116 Spiders and mites

117 Mites are more closely related to spiders than they are to insects. Mites do not have antennae like insects do, or segmented bodies or wings. They are usually very small and often go unnoticed. Most mites have an egg stage, a six-legged larval stage, and two eight-legged stages before becoming an adult. Phytoseiid mites are the major group of natural enemies that attack certain kinds of pest spider mites. It is especially important to conserve predatory mites in the landscape to prevent pest mite outbreaks. Other insect pests are also eaten by predatory mites including whiteflies, thrips, and certain insect eggs. Mites are more closely related to spiders than they are to insects. Mites do not have antennae like insects do, or segmented bodies or wings. They are usually very small and often go unnoticed. Most mites have an egg stage, a six-legged larval stage, and two eight-legged stages before becoming an adult. Phytoseiid mites are the major group of natural enemies that attack certain kinds of pest spider mites. It is especially important to conserve predatory mites in the landscape to prevent pest mite outbreaks. Other insect pests are also eaten by predatory mites including whiteflies, thrips, and certain insect eggs. Most predaceous mites are somewhat pear-shaped and shiny, with noticeably long legs. They may be bright red, yellow, or green depending on what they've been eating and appear "see- through". Predaceous mite eggs are usually oblong instead of spherical like the eggs of pest mite species. Predaceous mites are also much more active and mobile than pest mite species. Most predaceous mites are somewhat pear-shaped and shiny, with noticeably long legs. They may be bright red, yellow, or green depending on what they've been eating and appear "see- through". Predaceous mite eggs are usually oblong instead of spherical like the eggs of pest mite species. Predaceous mites are also much more active and mobile than pest mite species.

118 Spiders are all predators, but have many different lifestyles. Some make webs and wait for prey to come to them while others are active hunters. Spiders are important predators in the landscape and are very common in trees, shrubs, grass, and herbaceous plant beds. Most spiders are general predators, feeding on a wide variety of prey. Their are a number of spider species that may be found in the landscape. All have two body parts, an abdomen and a cephalothorax (combined head and thorax), and eight legs. Spiders tend to avoid people and most are harmless to humans. Spider complexes are believed to be important in reducing several kinds of nursery pests. Spiders are all predators, but have many different lifestyles. Some make webs and wait for prey to come to them while others are active hunters. Spiders are important predators in the landscape and are very common in trees, shrubs, grass, and herbaceous plant beds. Most spiders are general predators, feeding on a wide variety of prey. Their are a number of spider species that may be found in the landscape. All have two body parts, an abdomen and a cephalothorax (combined head and thorax), and eight legs. Spiders tend to avoid people and most are harmless to humans. Spider complexes are believed to be important in reducing several kinds of nursery pests.

119 Thrips

120 Thrips (Order Thysanoptera) are very small, narrow insects with fringes on the edges of their wings. Many species are recognized for their plant feeding (pest) habits, but there are many predaceous members of this insect order. These important predators of mites and small, soft-bodied insects are commonly black, yellow or brown as adults and clear or translucent white-yellow as immatures, although some are a distinctive reddish-orange in color. Thrips (Order Thysanoptera) are very small, narrow insects with fringes on the edges of their wings. Many species are recognized for their plant feeding (pest) habits, but there are many predaceous members of this insect order. These important predators of mites and small, soft-bodied insects are commonly black, yellow or brown as adults and clear or translucent white-yellow as immatures, although some are a distinctive reddish-orange in color.

121 Lacewings

122 Lacewings (Chrysopidae, Hemerobiidae) Both green lacewings and brown lacewings are predators, green lacewings are more common. They are often found on weeds, shrubs, and other cultivated plants. Adult green lacewings are about 3/4 inch, brown lacewings are smaller. Adult and larval brown lacewings and larval green lacewings feed on soft- bodied insects, especially aphids, and mites. Adult green lacewings may be pollen-feeders or they may be predaceous. Most are greenish in color with copper eyes and the network of veins in the wings that gives them their name. Both green lacewings and brown lacewings are predators, green lacewings are more common. They are often found on weeds, shrubs, and other cultivated plants. Adult green lacewings are about 3/4 inch, brown lacewings are smaller. Adult and larval brown lacewings and larval green lacewings feed on soft- bodied insects, especially aphids, and mites. Adult green lacewings may be pollen-feeders or they may be predaceous. Most are greenish in color with copper eyes and the network of veins in the wings that gives them their name.

123 Praying mantids

124 Praying Mantids (Mantidae) are comparatively large insects. Some may be as long as 3 in. Our native species are much smaller, however. Usually they are green, gray, or brown. Their raptorial front legs are covered with stout spines that help them grasp their prey. Praying Mantids (Mantidae) are comparatively large insects. Some may be as long as 3 in. Our native species are much smaller, however. Usually they are green, gray, or brown. Their raptorial front legs are covered with stout spines that help them grasp their prey. Mantid egg capsules contain 200 or more eggs neatly arranged in rows. They are deposited on twigs and stems and then the frothy mass hardens. It is very unlikely that praying mantids can suppress key pests in the landscape to the extent necessary Mantid egg capsules contain 200 or more eggs neatly arranged in rows. They are deposited on twigs and stems and then the frothy mass hardens. It is very unlikely that praying mantids can suppress key pests in the landscape to the extent necessary

125 Parasitic wasps and flies

126 Parasites are defined as organisms that live in or on the body of their host during some part of the parasite's life cycle. Parasitoids are a type of parasite that may consume part or all of its host's tissues resulting in the death of the host. The most abundant parasitic insects are flies or wasps. Parasitic insects usually require only one host to complete their development, in contrast to predators which require several. Parasitic insects may be responsible for controlling several pests, however, when they oviposit, or lay eggs, on a number of hosts. Parasites are defined as organisms that live in or on the body of their host during some part of the parasite's life cycle. Parasitoids are a type of parasite that may consume part or all of its host's tissues resulting in the death of the host. The most abundant parasitic insects are flies or wasps. Parasitic insects usually require only one host to complete their development, in contrast to predators which require several. Parasitic insects may be responsible for controlling several pests, however, when they oviposit, or lay eggs, on a number of hosts. Parasitic Wasps are a large group of beneficial insects and are extremely important in biological control. Many wasp families contain representatives of the parasitic life style. Most of these wasps are very small <1/8 inch and are, therefore, rarely seen. A large number in fact attack the egg stage, completing their entire life cycle inside minute insect eggs. Parasitic Wasps are a large group of beneficial insects and are extremely important in biological control. Many wasp families contain representatives of the parasitic life style. Most of these wasps are very small <1/8 inch and are, therefore, rarely seen. A large number in fact attack the egg stage, completing their entire life cycle inside minute insect eggs. Parasitic wasps lay their eggs in or on the host and the immature stage of the wasp feeds on the hosts tissues. The parasitic wasp may emerge from its host to pupate, or it may pupate within the body of its host. Wasp larvae that develop inside the host are called endoparasitic. They leave evidence of parasitism when they chew a small hole in their host's body to emerge. That small circular hole indicates that parasitism is occurring in the pest population. Insects that you may find parasitized this way include scales, aphids, whiteflies, lace bug eggs, leafminers and caterpillars. Other parasitic larvae live on the outside of the host's body and are called ectoparasites. Both endo and ectoparasites may spin numerous white cocoons for pupation, another obvious indication of parasitism. Parasitic wasps lay their eggs in or on the host and the immature stage of the wasp feeds on the hosts tissues. The parasitic wasp may emerge from its host to pupate, or it may pupate within the body of its host. Wasp larvae that develop inside the host are called endoparasitic. They leave evidence of parasitism when they chew a small hole in their host's body to emerge. That small circular hole indicates that parasitism is occurring in the pest population. Insects that you may find parasitized this way include scales, aphids, whiteflies, lace bug eggs, leafminers and caterpillars. Other parasitic larvae live on the outside of the host's body and are called ectoparasites. Both endo and ectoparasites may spin numerous white cocoons for pupation, another obvious indication of parasitism. Parasitic Flies are abundantly represented by the family Tachinidae, with about 1,300 North American species. They vary tremendously in appearance. Many just resemble a common husefly, while others look like bees or wasps. These flies deposit an egg or in some cases, a live larva, on or near the body of their host. The tachinid larva burrows into its host and consumes the internal tissues. Numerous kinds of insect pests are attacked by tachinids. Parasitic Flies are abundantly represented by the family Tachinidae, with about 1,300 North American species. They vary tremendously in appearance. Many just resemble a common husefly, while others look like bees or wasps. These flies deposit an egg or in some cases, a live larva, on or near the body of their host. The tachinid larva burrows into its host and consumes the internal tissues. Numerous kinds of insect pests are attacked by tachinids.

127 Pests to be on the lookout for January- December Insects that are active or that can be scouted for (SC), pruned out (P), sprayed (S), or treated with dormant oil (D) are listed in the following slides during the months where these activities would be appropriate. Insects that are active or that can be scouted for (SC), pruned out (P), sprayed (S), or treated with dormant oil (D) are listed in the following slides during the months where these activities would be appropriate. See individual plant based calendars in previous slides for more details. See individual plant based calendars in previous slides for more details.

128 January Southern red mite-S Southern red mite-S Armored scales – DO Armored scales – DO Bagworms- remove bags where feasible Bagworms- remove bags where feasible Asian ambrosia beetles- may be active this early some years in some locations Asian ambrosia beetles- may be active this early some years in some locations Flea beetles may be active in some locations Flea beetles may be active in some locations

129 February Southern red mite-S Southern red mite-S Cottony maple scale-S Cottony maple scale-S Armored scales-S Armored scales-S Bagworms-P Bagworms-P Spruce spider mites-S Spruce spider mites-S Azalea lace bug- SC (scout for eggs) Azalea lace bug- SC (scout for eggs) Asian ambrosia beetle-S Asian ambrosia beetle-S Leaf beetles on coreopsis and primrose-SC Leaf beetles on coreopsis and primrose-SC

130 March Azalea lace bug-S Azalea lace bug-S Strawberry rootworm Strawberry rootworm Azalea stem borer-S Azalea stem borer-S Boxwood Leafminer- sc Boxwood Leafminer- sc Boxwood psyllid-S Boxwood psyllid-S Armored scales-S Armored scales-S Asian ambrosia beetle-S Asian ambrosia beetle-S Cottony maple scale-S Cottony maple scale-S Citrus whitefly-SC Citrus whitefly-SC Holly leafminer-S Holly leafminer-S Bagworms- SC Bagworms- SC Spruce spider mites-S Spruce spider mites-S Aphids-S Aphids-S Flat headed apple tree borer-S Flat headed apple tree borer-S Dogwood twig borer-S Dogwood twig borer-S Insect galls on oaks and maple-S Insect galls on oaks and maple-S

131 April Azalea lace bug-S Azalea lace bug-S Azalea leaf miner-S Azalea leaf miner-S Strawberry rootworm Strawberry rootworm Azalea bark scale-S Azalea bark scale-S Azalea stem borer-S Azalea stem borer-S Boxwood leaf miner-S Boxwood leaf miner-S Leaf beetles on coreopsis, primrose and crapemyrtle-S Leaf beetles on coreopsis, primrose and crapemyrtle-S Spruce spider mite-S Spruce spider mite-S Bagworms-S Bagworms-S Cottony maple scale-S Cottony maple scale-S Borers on maple-S Borers on maple-S Boxwood psyllid--S Boxwood psyllid--S Tea scale and other armored scales-S Tea scale and other armored scales-S Asian ambrosia beetle Asian ambrosia beetle Dogwood borer-S Dogwood borer-S Dogwood twig borer-S Dogwood twig borer-S Dogwood clubgall midge-P Dogwood clubgall midge-P Citrus whitefly-S Citrus whitefly-S Armored scale on gardenia Armored scale on gardenia Holly leafminer-S Holly leafminer-S Lecanium scale-S Lecanium scale-S Aphids-S Aphids-S Insect galls on oaks and maple-S Insect galls on oaks and maple-S

132 May Azalea leaf miner-S Azalea leaf miner-S Azalea bark scale-S Azalea bark scale-S Azalea stem borer-S Azalea stem borer-S Boxwood leafminer-S Boxwood leafminer-S Indian wax scale-S Indian wax scale-S Boxwood psyllid-S Boxwood psyllid-S Scales on boxwood, gardenia, holly, camelia-S Scales on boxwood, gardenia, holly, camelia-S Crape myrtle aphid-S Crape myrtle aphid-S Japanese beetle first appearance Japanese beetle first appearance Flea beetles on crape myrtle and primrose-S Flea beetles on crape myrtle and primrose-S Dogwood borer-S Dogwood borer-S Dogwood clubgall midge- prune Dogwood clubgall midge- prune Dogwood twig borer-S Dogwood twig borer-S Citrus whitefly Citrus whitefly Wax scale on holly and others-S Wax scale on holly and others-S Caterpillars-S Caterpillars-S Aphids-S Aphids-S Borers-S Borers-S Lecanium scales on oak-S Lecanium scales on oak-S Insect galls on oak and maple-S/P Insect galls on oak and maple-S/P

133 June Azalea leafminer-S Azalea leafminer-S Azalea stem borer-P Azalea stem borer-P Two spotted spider mite-S Two spotted spider mite-S Indian wax scale-S Indian wax scale-S Armored scales-S Armored scales-S Crape myrtle aphid-S Crape myrtle aphid-S Japanese beetle-S Japanese beetle-S Dogwood borer-S Dogwood borer-S Dogwood clubgall midge-P Dogwood clubgall midge-P Cottony maple scale-S Cottony maple scale-S Citrus whitefly-S Citrus whitefly-S Florida wax scale-S Florida wax scale-S Two lined spittlebugs-S Two lined spittlebugs-S Juniper scale-S Juniper scale-S Bagworms-S Bagworms-S Aphids-S Aphids-S Lecanium scale-S Lecanium scale-S Oak galls-P Oak galls-P

134 July Two spotted spider mite-S Two spotted spider mite-S Crape myrtle aphid-S Crape myrtle aphid-S Dogwood borer-S Dogwood borer-S Dogwood clubgall midge-P Dogwood clubgall midge-P Citrus whitefly-S Citrus whitefly-S Bagworms-S Bagworms-S Maple and oak galls-P Maple and oak galls-P Cottony maple scale-S Cottony maple scale-S

135 August Azalea caterpillar-S Azalea caterpillar-S Two spotted spider mite-S Two spotted spider mite-S Crape myrtle aphid-S Crape myrtle aphid-S Citrus whitefly-S Citrus whitefly-S Bagworms-S Bagworms-S Insect galls on oaks-P Insect galls on oaks-P Two lined spittlebugs-S Two lined spittlebugs-S Orange striped oakworm-S Orange striped oakworm-S Green striped mapleworm-S Green striped mapleworm-S

136 September Orange striped oakworm-S Orange striped oakworm-S Azalea caterpillar-S Azalea caterpillar-S Crape myrtle aphid-S Crape myrtle aphid-S Citrus whitefly-S Citrus whitefly-S Two lined spittlebugs-S Two lined spittlebugs-S Bagworms-S Bagworms-S

137 October Southern red mite-S Southern red mite-S Crape myrtle aphid-S Crape myrtle aphid-S Asian ambrosia beetle- P Asian ambrosia beetle- P Spruce spider mite-S Spruce spider mite-S Orange striped oakworm-S Orange striped oakworm-S

138 November Southern red mite (azalea, camelia, holly)-S Southern red mite (azalea, camelia, holly)-S Armored scales- DO (boxwood, camelia, holly, gardenia, etc.) Armored scales- DO (boxwood, camelia, holly, gardenia, etc.) Spruce spider mite-S Spruce spider mite-S Bagworms- P Bagworms- P Maple borers- P Maple borers- P Lecanium scale -DO Lecanium scale -DO

139 December Southern red mite (azalea, camelia, holly)-S Southern red mite (azalea, camelia, holly)-S Armored scales- DO (boxwood, camelia, holly, gardenia, etc.) Armored scales- DO (boxwood, camelia, holly, gardenia, etc.) Spruce spider mite-S Spruce spider mite-S Bagworms- P Bagworms- P Maple borers- P Maple borers- P Lecanium scale -DO Lecanium scale -DO


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