2Where is the temperate deciduous forest biome located at? Eastern North AmericaCentral Europe and parts of RussiaChina & Japan
3In North America the biome occupies most of the eastern part of the continent,35˚ to 48˚ North. Temperate deciduous forests can also be found in parts of Russia, central Europe and in Asia. In Asia, China and Japan are the main countries with this biome; they range from 45˚ to 60˚ North in latitude. So overall we could find temperate deciduous forests anywhere from 0˚ to 60˚ North.
4Flora ► Temperate Deciduous Forests consist of five layers of plants. First Level: Ground LayerSecond Level: Herb LayerThird Level: Shrub LayerFourth Level: A Small Tree or Sapling LevelFifth Level: A Tree Stratum (60-100ft high)
5Ground Layer:The ground layer is located on the forest floor. It is made up of lichen, ferns, moss, wild flowers and other small plants . Out of which, lichens and mosses are grown on trees.Club-mossesWild Flowers (Star Flower)
6Herb Layer: Shrub Layer: The herb layer consists of perennial forbs. They bloom primarily in early spring.Shrub Layer:The shrub layer is commonly found with shrubs such as rhododendron, azaleas, mountain laurel, and huckleberries.
7a Small tree or Sapling layer This layer consists of small trees such as the shad bush or sour wood.DogwoodTrees (60-100ft)We can find mixed combinations of various trees such as oak,maple beech, chestnut, basswood walnut or sweet gum.Oak Tree
8FaunaWhitetail DearThe characteristics of the fauna are that they either feed on nuts and acorn or they are omnivores. White tail deer, gray squirrel and the chipmunk are examples of herbivores that originate from the North America. The large Omnivores from this region, for instance, include raccoons, black bears, opossums or the skunks. Mountain lions, timber wolves or the bobcats are the carnivores. The birds also tend to be seedeaters or omnivores, woodpeckers or the chickadees are some examples that are present in the eastern North America.Mountain LionBlack Bear
9Biotic Factors: Widespread oaks and maple Vast variety of animals Levels of plant species: These include ground, herb,shrub, sapling and tree layers.The forests are deciduous, meaning the trees have a characteristic of shedding their leaves
10Abiotic Factors:Located at North America, central Europe, Russia,Japan and China.Temperature varies from 0°C to 30°C, yearly average is 10°C, hot summers, cold winters. (Sometimes, the temperature can reach below 0°C.)Distinct Seasons.About a 6 month growing period.Precipitation, is anywhere from 50mm to 90mm of rainfall. (Note precipitation and the temperature have been recorded from Staunton, Virginia.
11Some adaptations required for trees is that they have to survive during the winter when the ground freezes, and as a result the amount of water is very low.The required adaptations for animals, is that they have to somehow spend the hard winters where food is extremely scarce.Northern Cardinal is a bird that has adapted to live during the harsh winters, unlike the rest 70% of this biome which migrate during winter.
12Geological History:The geological events that took place in the temperate deciduous forest biome are few.One event is about the creation of the hydrosphere for the North American part of this biome. All the states from New England down to Indiana were frozen, and eventually the ice melted and formed the lakes and rivers in this particular region.
13Threats/ Negative Impact created by Human InvolvementTo This Biome:The carnivores such as the mountain lion are endangered, due to the status of a game animal in the minds of humans.Deforestation is a major issue, as forests especially in China are cleared for farming or in other countries due to strip mining.
14Pollution caused by humans, in the atmosphere from industries and motor vehicles or in the water from chemicals is a major threat to this biome.
19Habitat: The bald eagle lives near rivers and large lakes, as it catches most of its food in the water.Primary Producers:The primary producers are the most important part of the biome, because they are the key for all the energy as they are in the bottom of the food chain. The oak tree is a perfect example in our biome as it powers the squirrel which relies on the acorn from the tree, it powers the snake indirectly through the squirrel. It powers the eagle which ate the snake and so on.
20Primary Consumers:Primary consumers are herbivores and obtain energy directly from producers. They play a role in keeping the producers from increasing. For instance, if the grasshopper eats away the leaves in a plant not only does it help the growth of a plant, it is indirectly helping to keep the balance of the food chain. So the primary consumers are the food sources for secondary consumers as well as tertiary consumers.
21Tertiary Consumers:The primary consumers do the balancing part of the energy, they help keep the biome’s food web balanced. For example if the bald eagles were extinct,then the snake population and the fish population would increase, as a result the amount of producers in the biome would decrease. This will trigger devastating changes to the biome in general, and will take long time and effort to bring it back into normal.
22DetritivoresDetritivores are important because they play the key roles in a process which is vital in a biome, recycling. They recycle so that dead matter can be reentered into the ground and be useful for the new growth, mainly all the nutrients. Snail is an example of a detritivore in our biome.
23Questions?? Mention one carnivore in our biome. What is the average temperature in our biome??Is the temperate deciduous forest biome located in South Korea??