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Ecology M. Saadatian TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST 1
TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST
What is a deciduous forest? A DECIDUOUS FOREST is used to describe a type of forest trees shed their leaves during the cold months of the year and re-grow new leaves the next Spring. The major characteristic is that it has 4 DISTINCT SEASONS!
LOCATION Eastern third of the North America western Europe China, Korea, Japan and Australia southern tip of South America The only part of Texas that has this type of forest is far East Texas
Temperature changes drastically from season to season. Annual rainfall ranges from around 50 cm -200 cm Soil is nutrient rich Trees are spread further apart which allows some sunlight to reach the forest floor General Characteristics
One more Characteristic Has 5 layers Tree stratum, the tallest layer, feet high, with large oak, maple, beech, chestnut, hickory, elm, basswood, linden, walnut, or sweet gum trees. Small tree or sapling layer - short tree species and young trees. Shrub layer - shrubs like rhododendrons, azaleas, mountain laurels, and huckleberries. Herb layer - short plants. Ground layer - lichens, club mosses, and true mosses.
Plant Adaptations seen in the Deciduous Forest Trees drop their leaves in the winter to prevent water loss during the colder months. Also, there is less direct sunlight in the winter, which means less photosynthesis! So deciduous trees drop their leaves to conserve energy. Trees have thick bark to protect against harsh winters Leaves are broad to collect as much sunlight as possible.
Spring bulbs use the free light before trees grow leaves and block the light from reaching the forest floor.
SUMMER Leaves from the trees block out light to forest floor (flowers die) main season for photosynthesis in trees.
AUTUMN Temperatures decrease, the tree cuts off the supply of water to the leaves and they fall off. Leaf litter increases during autumn and decomposes over the year. The leaves cannot produce chlorophyll (which makes the leaves green) without water and sunlight causing them to change into beautiful red, yellow and orange colors. The lack of chlorophyll is the reason for the color changes in the leaves!
WINTER It’s too cold for the trees to protect their leaves from freezing. Losing their leaves helps trees to prevent water loss through transpiration. Before the leaves die, the food and energy in the leaves are pulled back into the tree so it is not lost.
Animal Adaptations seen in the Deciduous Forest Migration- Many animals from birds and geese to small mammals move to warmer climates in the winter months. Hibernation- several types of animals including bears will hibernate in the winter months to survive the harsh climate when food is scarce. Food Storage- In preparation for the winter, squirrels and other animals will store food to last them through the harsh winter months. Thick fur and layers of adipose tissue (fat)- also help animals to survive dropping temperatures. Camouflage
Food chains in temperate zone biome
The Desert Biome
There are three deserts in Africa including the Sahara, the Kalahari, and the Namib. There are many deserts in Asia. Three of the most prominent deserts include the Gobi, the Taklamakan, and the Karakum. Gobi: Located in Northern parts of China and into Southern Mongolia. Taklamakan: Located in Southeastern China. Karakum: Located in Turkmenistan Great Basin The largest desert in North America Atacama desert in south American
Basic Desert Characteristics Dry – 10 inches or 25.4 cm of rain or less PER YEAR!! Wide range of temperatures (because of low humidity) – warmer during the day – colder at night Sandy or rocky soil and very little vegetation
Adaptations are characteristics of an organism that help it survive in its environment or reproduce. Examples of Physical Adaptations in Plants: Chloroplast for Photosynthesis (C4 and CAM plant)Photosynthesis Xylem and phloem ---- Turgor Pressure Xylem and phloem Turgor Pressure Desert plant adaptations to live with less water Desert plant adaptations
Examples of Physical Adaptations in Animals: Leg speed, sharp claws and/or teeth (tusks), spikes or quills, or armor for protection Cold blooded – to avoid having to heat or cool themselves Coloring for camouflage or warning Coloring Some organisms don’t sweat – to avoid water loss Some animals have specialized kidneys to conserve water used for urine Long ears on a jack rabbit, so that excess heat can escape (what about rabbits that live in a cold area?)(what about rabbits that live in a cold area?) Javelina Armadillo
Behavioral Adaptations are things an organism does to help it survive and reproduce in its environment hunting at night to avoid extreme heat storing food for later use (dry season, cold season etc) Hibernation or estivation (sleeping for long periods of time to conserve energy) Staying in groups to help deter prey Hunting in packs to help take down larger prey Migration to access food, avoid extreme temperatures, or to reproduce.