Presentation on theme: "Research Based Impacts of Universal Design Strategies in Postsecondary Educational Instruction Kelly D. Roberts Associate Professor University of Hawai`i."— Presentation transcript:
Research Based Impacts of Universal Design Strategies in Postsecondary Educational Instruction Kelly D. Roberts Associate Professor University of Hawai`i at Manoa Center on Disability Studies Accessing Higher Ground,
Objectives Increased understanding of UDL principles Demonstrated understanding and use of graphic organizers, guided notes, and the pause procedure Increased understanding of recent research on graphic organizers, guided notes, and the pause procedure
Universal Design is the design of products and environments to be usable by everyone, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design.” (DO-IT, www.washington.edu/doit) www.washington.edu/doit Universal Design for Learning/Instruction
Universal Design for Learning “[Universal Design for Learning] UDL provides a blueprint for creating flexible goals, methods, materials, and assessments that accommodate learner differences. ‘Universal’ does not imply a single optimal solution for everyone. Instead, it is meant to underscore the need for multiple approaches to meet the needs of diverse learners.” (CAST, www.cast.org)www.cast.org
What is UDL? “ The design of instructional materials and activities that makes the learning goals achievable by individuals with wide differences in their abilities to see, hear, speak, move, read, write, understand English, attend, organize, engage, and remember…. by means of flexible curricular materials and activities that … are built into the instructional design and operating systems of educational materials—they are not added on after-the-fact. ” (Council for Exceptional Children)
What is UDL? Simply stated, UDL is good teaching.
The Need for UDL Increasingly diverse college student body 40% 25 or older 31% racial/ethnic minorities 34% attending college part-time 20% increase in international students from 1998-200 Students with disabilities increased from 2.3% in 1978 to 9.8% in 1998 (Henderson, 1998) Estimates are upwards of 11% in 2013 (Landmark)
The Need for UDL Increasing focus on student retention Shift in pedagogy from delivering instruction to promoting learning (Fink, 2003) Barriers reported by students with disabilities include: Unclear expectations Textbooks inaccessible Classes taught in lecture format requiring extensive notetaking Difficulty attaining accommodations
Origins of UDL The foundation for UDL is architecture Buildings, like instruction, are often designed for the “ average ” person Buildings then need to be retrofitted to accommodate other individuals Retrofits (e.g., wooden ramp) are often expensive, ugly/call attention to user, solve only one problem at a time
Origins of UDL Universal design “ consider[s] the needs of the broadest possible range of users from the beginning ” (Ron Mace, architect; CAST, 2003) Buildings designed universally from the beginning, not as an add-on Increases access for many unintended users E.g., Ramps, curb cuts, electric doors, captions
Seven Universal Design Principles (Story, Mueller, & Mace, 1998) Equitable use Flexibility in use Simple and intuitive Perceptible information Tolerance for error Low physical effort Size and space for approach and use
Universal Design for Learning Adds two more (Scott, McGuire, & Shaw, 2001) A community of learners Instructional climate
Equitable Use Instruction is designed to be useful to and accessible by people with diverse abilities. Instruction is identical whenever possible, equivalent when not. E.g., All students use pause procedure, guided notes, and graphic organizers; not just those with disabilities/low achievers.
How do you do this in your classroom? Equitable Use
Flexibility in Use Instruction is designed to accommodate a wide range of individual abilities. Allow for alternative means of expression for demonstrating mastery of course content. E.g., Using varied instructional methods such as lectures with a visual outline, group activities, hands-on activities, & web based discussions. Allow students the option of doing an oral presentation, writing a paper, or taking a test.
How do you do this in your classroom? Flexibility in Use
Simple and Intuitive Instruction is designed in a straightforward and predictable manner. Eliminate unnecessary complexity. E.g., clear grading rubric, accurate and comprehensive syllabus, guided notes, graphic organizers, notes provided in advance.
How do you do this in your classroom? Simple and Intuitive
Perceptible Information Necessary information is communicated effectively to the students. Provide alter- native representations of essential concepts to allow students to learn course content through their preferred mean. E.g., use multimedia and have textbooks and other reading materials available in digital format or online for students who learn through hearing.
How do you do this in your classroom? Perceptible Information
Tolerance for Error Instruction anticipates variation in individual student learning pace and prerequisite skills. E.g., option of turning in project components for feedback, online “ practice ” exercises, pause procedure, guided notes.
How do you do this in your classroom? Tolerance for Error
Low Physical Effort Minimize nonessential physical effort in order to allow maximum attention to learning (does not apply when physical effort is integral to the course). E.g., Allow students to use a word processor for writing essay exams or a recorder to “take” notes.
How do you do this in your classroom? Low Physical Effort
Size and Space in Approach and Use Consider appropriate size and space for approach, reach, manipulations, and use. E.g., In small class settings, use of a circular seating arrangement allows students to see and face speakers during discussion.
How do you do this in your classroom? Size and Space in Approach and Use
A Community of Learners The instructional environment promotes interaction and communication among students and between students and faculty. E.g., Structure study groups, discussion groups, e- mail lists, and chat rooms; make a personal connection with students; learn students ’ names; individually acknowledge excellent performance; & use pause procedure (w/lectures).
How do you do this in your classroom? A Community of Learners
Instructional Climate Instruction is designed to be welcoming and inclusive. High expectations are in place for all students. E.g., Highlight diverse thinkers who have made significant contributions to the field or share innovative approaches developed by students in the class.
How do you do this in your classroom? Instructional Climate
UDL – The Research Base Limited experimental research located examining the effectiveness of UDL in postsecondary environments. UDL is an umbrella term (i.e., a set of principles) that is difficult to assess.
UDL - Operationalized There are practices consistent with the principles of UDL. Researchers at the University of Hawai`i operationalized the principles of UDL to conduct research.
The Pause Procedure: What is it? Provide students with short (e.g., 2-minute), periodic breaks to review notes and discuss content Pauses typically given at natural breaks in class approximately every 15 minutes Pauses can be An independent review of notes and/or short reflective writing assignment A group (often dyad) discussion of notes
Guided Notes: What are they? Guided notes are teacher prepared handouts that guide students through a lecture Identify the most important course content that students must learn and retain via lecture. Less can be more. Delete key facts, concepts, and relationships from the lecture outline, leaving the remaining information to structure and contextualize students ’ note taking.
Guided Notes: How to … Insert cues (e.g., asterisks, lines, bullets) to indicate where and how many facts or concepts to write. Use other symbols to indicate where students can add own examples/answer questions for review ( ) or to emphasize “ big ideas ” ( ) Leave plenty of space to write and don ’ t require too much writing Include additional resources such as URLs and references
GUIDED NOTES – EXAMPLE Research-based Practices Research-based practices are supported as being effective by Science is a systematic and logical approach for avoiding false and false Research can be a powerful and reliable method for determining what works However, science is a process and evidence accrues over time No one study is
Graphic Organizers: What are They? A graphic organizer is a visual and graphic display that depicts the relationships between facts, terms, and or ideas within a learning task. Examples include: Advanced organizers, Venn diagrams, concept/spider/story maps, flowcharts, hierarchies In contrast to one-dimensional outlines
Graphic Organizers: How to … Can provide completed GOs to students Learn by viewing Students can construct own GOs Learn by doing Students can complete partially completed GOs
Best Practices _________________ __________________ Research-based Practices _________________ __________________ Evidence-based Practices ______________________________ __________________ 1. All evidence-based practices (EBPs) are _________________ and ____________________. 2. All research-based practices (RBPs) are _________________, but many RBPs are not _________________. 3. Many best practices are neither _________________ or _________________. GRAPHIC ORGANIZER EXAMPLE
Research on UDL - as Pause Procedure, Guided Notes, & Graphic Organizers Video Lecture on Evidence Based Practices Lecture Only Using Pause Procedure Using Guided Notes Using Graphic Organizers
Recruitment Students recruited from UH system institutions Students receive $10 gift card for first quiz Students receive $20 gift card for quiz completion 2-week later
Procedures Students watched a video lecture under one of the four conditions Students took a quiz immediately after the lecture Students took a quiz two weeks later to access long term recall
Student Demographic Information, UDL Video Lecture Series
Control vs. Treatment Immediately after Lecture Figure 1. Graph of, t-test results on 10 question quiz immediately following lecture by group. *Difference between treatment and control group highly significant (p <.001).
Control vs Treatment – 2 weeks Post *Difference between treatment and control group not significant at Wave II. Note. Drop in scores between time points was significant for both groups between waves.
Control & Each Treatment Group, Immediately and 2 Weeks After Graph of ANOVA, t-test results on 10 question quiz by time point and group. Note. All groups’ mean scores significantly declined between time points Immediately Following Lecture
Implications for postsecondary education instruction. Each procedures appears to improve initial recall Participants using Guided notes had significantly better recall 2 weeks later Hopefully this study will influence additional research
Limitations to the Study Recruitment Difficult test Students not randomly assigned to groups