Presentation on theme: "Ｔａｋａａｋｉ Ｔｓｕｊｉ (Graduate school of Informatics, Kyoto Univ.) 1/30 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved."— Presentation transcript:
Ｔａｋａａｋｉ Ｔｓｕｊｉ (Graduate school of Informatics, Kyoto Univ.) 1/30 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.
What is Ethnography Setting of research question Participation in field Collection of data: Participant observation ・ Field notes ・ Interview ・ Self- observation report Analysis of data: Construction of model ・ Bottom-up analysis ・ Reference to theory Summary of result Process of ethnography Ethnography is a method for describing and modeling the phenomena that have occurred in the field 2 /30 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.
Setting of research questions / Participation in field Setting of research questions ethnography involves a need to clarify what to reveal in research before research or at an early stage. Setting of informant Ethnography starts by establishing relations with people in the field. Among such people, those who research (related) are called informants. Position of researchers Researchers who participate in the field are known as participation observers. For informants, such participation observers are neither complete outsiders, nor complete insiders. They adopt a third party perspective, separate from both. 3 /30 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.
Collection of data Participant Observation The researcher discovers the pattern of a repetitive phenomenon in the field while effectively using senses. fieldnotes The researcher observes the practice of informants and their surrounding environment in detail, and makes notes based on what he or she has seen. Interview structured interviews, semi-structured interviews, and unstructured interviews Self-observation report describing what the informant noticed in their own practice. 4 /30 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.
Analysis of data Bottom-up data analysis Step １ : The patterns of repeatedly recurring phenomena are discovered and accumulated. Step ２ : The discovered pattern is understood on a conceptual level, and the category is generated. Step ３ : The categories are systematically related, and the structure and process of the phenomena are described. Reference to theory By referring to a category (concept) which is emerging from data bottom-up with a concept emanating from theory in deductive logic, it becomes easy to name concepts, and also relate them. 5 /30 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.
Process of analysis of data 6 /30 Data Pattern of phenomenon-1 Pattern of phenomenon-2 Pattern of phenomenon-3 Category-1 Category-2 Category-3 Construction of model Systematic relation Discovery Labeling Reference to theory Labeling Conceput- alization Concepu- talization Data General theory Local theory Description of structure and process of phenomenon Step (3) Collection of data Step (1) Step (2) Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.
Summarizing result Triangulation The analysis of data in ethnography is considerably dependent on the interpretation of the individual analysis. When indicating the analysis result, it’s important to provide a presentation superimposing multiple kinds of information, rather than only one. The kind of language used to summarize results is important. These can then be conveyed to the researcher community in the form of articles, using theoretic terms. However bearing in mind that the results are also conveyed to the field, the summary must be in language people on-site can understand. 7 /30 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.
Ethnography for informatics Design of artifacts The engineer and designer usually design artifacts with certain intentions. In addition, ethnography is used to verify whether people use such artifacts as intended. For instance, when a new cellular phone is developed, any gaps and differences from the original intention are clarified by describing and modeling scenes in which the user is using it, so its design can be improved. Design of field When a new artifact enters the field, in addition to the human-artifact relation, there are also various circumstances and patterns surrounding the human change. Suppose, for instance, the business manager of a certain company wished to revitalize the sharing of information sharing among laborers working there by introducing the mobile phone as a means of contact. By describing and modeling the pattern and circumstances of sharing information on workers using the cellular phone via ethnography, various relations among components such as humans, cellular phones, and others in the office can be effectively designed. 8 /30 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.
9 /30 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.
Outline of practice The distance collaborative course between Japan and America using information technology Here, connecting universities A and B in Japan and America respectively via the Internet, I establish a learning environment where students of both countries discuss on a bulletin board system, and focus on the English learning of Japanese university student generated there. 10 /30 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.
Composition of one group Japanese student American student Bulletin board system Discussion about bioethics Language: English Researcher （ Key informant ） Object 11 /30 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.
Collection of data -1 Concerning the three key informants, we collected data as follows: The researcher observed the activity of key informants during the class hour and recorded what we noted, as well as details of words and deeds on field notes. The researcher provided the key informants with self-observation reports and asked them to describe the details of the content and type of work they conducted, as well as their awareness at the time, in as much detail as possible, both during and outside class hours. We provided a self-observation report for one week (one A4 sheet per day, seven sheets in total) kept on file, collected it on the day prior to Thursday, the class day (Wednesday), and additionally gave out a file for one week at the time, starting from that day. We repeated this cycle weekly during the implementation period (for nine weeks in total). 12 /30 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.
Collection of data -2 The researcher examined the self-observation report collected from the key informants prior to class every Thursday, based on which, following the class hour, the site was changed to a private room and interviews were conducted (nine times in total). The interview time lasted from 30 to 60 minutes. At the time, all sessions were recorded with a digital micro recorder, computerized in line with the protocol and compiled. The researcher collected communication logs between Japan and America on the bulletin board system of each group. 13 /30 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.
Data analysis I will explain the analysis result of the data, in the temporal processes of [first term], [middle term] and [latter term] of practice. We will then explain about the repeatedly recurring patterns, which emerged in each process, and categories generated based on the same, presenting data examples. Self-observation report (from 1st to 72nd day) will be described as follows. e.g.) self-observation report from the first to 10th day → self-observation report-10 I’ll describe interviews (nine times in total) as follows as well.e.g. ） The first interview → interview-1 14 /30 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.
Data analysis -First term Repeatedly recurring patterns 1 Data example: I re-read the self-introduction post I had sent to an American student the other day. Perhaps because I wrote in a hurry, some of the text was grammatically wrong and it seemed difficult to understand the meaning. Although I believe my English reading ability remains intact, as I had some opportunities to study it at university, I was hardly exposed to English composition. I believe I focused quite heavily on English composition previously, though. I intend to write, sticking to grammar and diction (tense, syntax) pretty much as well. I want to see how much degree so-called English aimed at passing exams works, by their responses. （ From the self-observation report 2 of student K ） I teach English to first-year high school students once a week for about three hours, but it’s a good lesson to me as it often means content I had forgotten comes out. Today we studied participial construction but I thought in this subject, absolute participial constructions and so on would also be used in communication, and I reviewed it with enthusiasm. Although high-school English is stigmatized in many ways, for example, labeled ‘English for passing exams’, I believe it includes many key elements as a basis for English. (From the self-observation report 10 of student J) ． Today, I checked email at school, printed out the emails received, brought them home and read them. After all, it’s still difficult to translate and understand English text shown on a PC screen while looking at it. I just feel that I can work on translation calmly by moving hands and making notes on English texts. (From the self- observation report 20 of student J) ． 15 /30 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.
Data example: From the time when the students on the American side post something until the time we respond, we always conduct a specific process sequence. First of all, we print out the posted texts on a bulletin board system, and read the hard copies. This is because, when reading English texts, we are used to reading, underlining and sectioning texts, so they can be remembered more easily, before summarizing in Japanese, and comparing with what we imagined. Subsequently, summarizing our opinions, we post to the American side. In other words, when we think, we switch English to Japanese mode, and also learn not on screen but on paper. In short, it can be said that even when the learning environment is unfamiliar, we learn, spontaneously switching to the learning style we are used to. （ From the self-observation report 18 of student K ） Work flow till posting. 1) Consider the contents we want to post 2) Write out the points, itemizing in Japanese. At this time, instead of making a Japanese translation, we draw a relationship diagram, to facilitate organization. 3) Compose English texts, using a dictionary and reference book (on paper). 4) Post on the bulletin board system, re-examining the English texts. Concerning 2, it’s relatively easy to consider a composition by summarizing points and not translating completely into Japanese. Concerning 3, what we concretely checked in reference book today concerns the usage of “some others...” and the type 2 conditional. （ From the self- observation report 31 of student K ） In the first term of this practice, in a reading and writing situation on the bulletin board system, Japanese students used a learning strategy based on their past experience of English use. Namely, students prioritized the use of errorless grammar and wording and were reading and writing similarly to the examination age. 16 /30 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.
Generation of category 1 I labeled the ways students use English as mentioned above, as “English use in an examination culture”. Subsequently, we labeled the attitude of students prioritizing the use of flawless grammar and diction, and the proper use of syntax, and valuing it, as “persistence to English use in an examination culture”. Likewise, we labeled the manner of English composition and reading, expressed by students in the form of a calm and familiar learning style, as “a learning strategy based on examination culture”. 17 /30 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.
Data analysis -Middle term Repeatedly recurring patterns 2 Data example: I thought that English composition to date (the examination age) required to read the intention of the question master of “use this syntax, use that expression” in a question, and applying what is appropriate using accumulated knowledge, but in such cases, as you must also think of sentences yourself, I thought it’s easy but sometimes difficult. （ From the self-observation report 31 of student K ） As I have done by remembering syntax and so on to date, I am not comfortable unless I do such and such. The postings of people on the American side are also rather difficult to read if attempts are made to apply to grammatical items, so I feel it differs a bit from the sense of reading in the examination age. (From the interview 4 of student K) For example, always in English examinations, specific terminology is already included in notes at the bottom, right? Today I felt that the technical bioethics jargon would be problematic. (From the interview 3 of student K) Concerning words, if they are difficult, I have to write down the Japanese meaning in each case below, otherwise I will be unable to understand the meaning properly. In terrible cases, I sometimes refer to the dictionary twice or more. This especially applies to medical terms. (From the self-observation report 20 of student J) ． 18 /30 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.
In the first half of the middle term of practice came statements, based on which we can sense how students who had been used to the examination culture were feeling confusion and inexperience in reading and writing practical English texts, namely, liaising with students on the American side via an electronic Network in English, which was repeatedly confirmed from all sorts of data. Generation of category 2 We labeled the aforementioned confusion and inexperience emerging in students as “conflict between an examination culture and a practical culture”. 19 /30 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.
Repeatedly recurring patterns 3 Data example: The other side seems motivated. Recently we even discussed the festival held over there. It’s started feeling like we are communicating. It feels like, well, somehow good. It feels informal. (From the self-observation report 6 of student J) I think resistance or worry are certainly easing, because each time, I am reminded that even simple tests can be understood by the other side. (From the interview 5 of student J) Today there was a posting from the American side. It was a response to the message we sent the other day. There, it said “We’ll going to kind”. In other words, since the posting we had sent was in poor English, they used simple English for us. To be honest, I was a bit shocked, but it can’t be helped as that is just the way it is. （ From the self-observation report 11 of student L ） 20 /30 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.
When the latter half of the middle term commenced, the phenomenon whereby students-J and -K resolved conflict by smooth communications with the American students was observed. On the other hand, it emerged that communication between student-L and the American students didn’t go well, hence the conflict remained unresolved. Generation of category 3 We labeled the communication status with students on the American side as mentioned above, as the ”relationship with American students”. 21 /30 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.
Data analysis -Latter term-1 Repeatedly recurring patterns 4 Data example This came to mind reading my recent posting but, I think the expression, syntax and wording I use have been getting fixed to some extent. In terms of word order, I tend to always extract the same things from my overall knowledge of English expressions to some extent. A partner of the group was saying that “recently, I got faster in writing English texts in BB than before” – maybe because his English ability improved - but at the same time, as mentioned previously, I think that is also because the expression and syntax to use have become fixed. （ From the self-observation report 47 of student K ） Wording when you request something from someone else, for example, if wording using an auxiliary verb, I think I have been taught it many times up to high school, to use an interrogative starting with “could you” and a text simply saying “please~”, but among these, the options to use are fixed to some extent, and although the current example involves requesting, the others are also mostly fixed. (From the interview 6 of student K) In today’s class, I sent a reply to the American side. Although it took a while to think of the content, I was again slow to translate into English. In today’s class, as a first, I tried using a translation site, and despite some difference, I thought it was useful. However, I would like it to translate more correctly. （ From the self- observation report 13 of student L ） 22 /30 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.
Data example When creating the content of (the report of the) web page, I wanted to put the Japanese content having appeared in the book of teacher V, translating into English but translation software is not at all reliable and I’m puzzled. (From the interview 7 of student L) * Teacher V: the author of the book With a translation site, I could work it out in English without having similar trouble before. (From the interview 3 of student K) Well, English is also difficult. However, today I tried using a translation site and thought I could work it out. (From the interview 2 of student K) During the latter practice term, change had become evident in the learning strategy when students read and write English texts. With students-J and -K, the phenomenon whereby they imitated the vocabulary pattern of the American students, namely, used their sentence expressions in writing or reading, was frequently observed. On the other hand, for student-L, the phenomenon whereby she wrote English text using a web translation site was repeatedly observed. 23 /30 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.
Data analysis -Reference to theory One theory to explain the process of students participating in a certain community of practice and structuring learning activity using eccentrically located tools and resources, is that of situated learning. The ‘community of practice’ means a place where social practice enables the acquisition of knowledge and skill through group participation. In the theory of situated learning, “resources to be referred to for use each time according to learning scenes” are called “resources”. Such resources are regarded as sociocultural resources of the community of practice, through which students acquire sociocultural aspects and beliefs inherent to the latter. Recently, as well as real space, the collaborative learning scene on an electronic Network such as CSCL (Computer Supported Cooperative Learning) and so on has also emerged as the community of practice. With this in mind, student groups of Japan and America involved in this practice can be also regarded as a certain kind of community of practice. In this case, Japanese students referred to resources such as American students’ patterns of vocabulary or translation software on a web site. Moreover, the use of such resources also affects their values and belief system. 24 /30 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.
Generation of category 4 We labeled the learning strategy of the abovementioned students J and K, as “the use of resources of American students’ vocabulary pattern”, and the learning strategy of student L as “the use of resource of translation software on a web site”. 25 /30 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.
Data analysis -Latter term-2 Repeatedly recurring patterns 5 Data example: School education today might make us remember a lot of detailed grammar far beyond what we need. Actually we can liaise with CWRU students without using it so much. （ From the self-observation report 47 of student K ） I think I wrote that I wanted to stick to English for examination in this project, in the self-observation report of the first week. However, in this project, my main concern was to strive to build relationships of trust with the other side. I feel that I could get used to communication in English more flexibly than I thought. （ From the self-observation report 65 of student K ） It just took time to translate into English. Writing consistent sentences was unexpectedly difficult. As I wanted to write while minimizing mistakes, I made considerable use of a translation site, but I think for this reason, it took a long time. I really feel the lack of my English ability. (From the self-observation report 70 of student L) 26 /30 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.
While being introduced to this aspect of the theory of situated learning, I had focused on values and the belief system concerning the students' English use in data analysis. As a result, it emerged that students J and K, who used the resource of the American students’ vocabulary pattern, had obtained a value and belief system for English use resembling practical culture. Conversely, for student L, who used a translation site, as you can tell from the statement of “writing consistent sentences, writing without making mistakes”, we could see that he retained the use of a value and belief system for English use close to that of examination culture. Generation of category 5 I labeled the value and belief system for the English use of students as a “perspective on English”, and decided to call the situation of its change “reconstruction of a perspective on English”. Moreover, concerning the “persistence to English use in an examination culture” in category 1, we labeled it as a “perspective on English in a examination culture”. 27 /30 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.
Summary Systematically relating the abovementioned generated categories 1–5, and summarizing the structure and process of English learning of the students on the Japanese side, we can describe as follows: In this research, we analyzed Japanese students’ English learning in an electronic learning environment where they were asked to use English practically using ethnography. Consequently, the following results emerged concerning Japanese university students. 28 /30 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.
(1.) When reading and writing, Japanese students used a learning strategy based on their past experience of English use in an examination culture. (2.) Japanese students faced a conflict because of the difference of English use between an examination culture and a practical culture. (3.) In the process of adjusting to a practical culture, Japanese students referred to resources such as American students’ patterns of vocabulary or translation software on a web site. The students, who were capable of effectively communicating with American students, used the American students’ vocabulary patterns, on the other hand, those who were incapable used resources of translation software on websites. (4.) By referring to these resources, Japanese students transformed their learning strategies and perspective of English, which had been based on an examination culture. From the above, it was suggested that English learning in an electronic learning environment was interwoven into the historical context of students’ English use and the relation with situational context such as others and resources and those influenced by the peculiarity of the technology used in the practice. 29 /30 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.
Suggestion for learning environmental design Based on the above-mentioned knowledge, we will summarize the points suggested concerning the design of the learning environment. Uneven distribution of resources in the learning environment Based on the results this time, it was indicated that the use of resources has a major impact on learning trajectory. Also, it emerged that students, even when facing a conflict situation, overcame that using available resources. Therefore, in designing a learning environment within an electric network, it’s important to distribute resources students can use and access in advance to promote their active actions. Intervention by teacher and teaching assistant In this research, there were two forms of trajectory for the English use of students. It’s important to use the result obtained from the ethnography this time to monitor the circumstances of students, determine their trajectories, and support teachers and TA (Teaching Assistants) to exert a positive influence on the same. In particular, regardless of discrepancy, the communication between students of both countries led to a subsequent difference. Therefore, to avoid allowing such discrepancies to occur, teachers and TA must properly intervene in students’ practice, and control their learning trajectories to within a certain scope. 30 /30 Copyright (C) 2010 Field Informatics Research Group. Kyoto University. All Rights Reserved.