8 Our Changing Lifestyle: Trends and Fads Text APara. 1-2Our Changing Lifestyle: Trends and FadsThese days, lifestyles have a tendency to change so fast. It is more than just clothing and hairstyles that are in style one year and out of date the next; it’s a whole way of living.One year, people wear hats and blue jeans; they drink white wine and eat at Japanese restaurants: for exercise they run several miles a day. The next year, however, everything has changed: women wear long skirts; people drink expensive water from France, and eat at Italian restaurants: everyone seems to be exercising at health clubs.Chinese
9 Text AAlmost nothing in modern life gets away from the influence of fashion: food, music, exercise, books, language, movies, furniture, and even names go in and out of fashion. The interests that people follow can change very quickly.ChinesePara. 3
10 Text AIn the United States, even people can be “in” or “out”. Americans enjoy following the lives of famous people: actors, sports heroes, well-known artists, politicians, and the like. But Americans also pay a lot of attention to people who have no special ability at all In 1981, for example, an unknown elderly woman appeared in a TV advertisement in which she looked at a very small hamburger and complained loudly, “Where’s the beef?” These three words made her famous. Suddenly she appeared in magazines and newspapers, and on TV shows. She was immediately popular. She was “in” However, this kind offame does not last long. Such people are famous for a very short time—they are fads.ChinesePara. 4
11 Text AWhat causes such fads to come and go? Although clothing designers influence fads in fashion because they want to make money, this desire for money doesn’t explain fads in other areas, such as language. For example, why have teenagers in the past twenty-five years used—at different times—the words groovy or awesome in conversation instead of simply saying wonderful? According to an expert in popular culture, people who follow fads are not foolish or vain; they simply want to be part of something new and creative.ChinesePara. 5
12 Text AFads are not limited to the United States, however. Fads are common in any country that has a strong economy (e.g. Britain, Japan, and Germany). However, in the United States, there is an additional reason for fads: most Americans seem to feel that something is wrong if there isn’t frequent change in their lives.ChinesePara. 6
13 Text AIt’s sometimes difficult to see the difference between a fad and a trend. A fad lasts a very short time and is not very important A social trend, however, survives a long time and becomes a true part of modern culture. The use of personal computers, for example, is a trend; a fad, on the other hand, could be the use of certain types of computer games.Who knows what changes in lifestyle will happen next?ChinesePara. 7 & 8
14 Meaning of the Sentences 1Our Changing Lifestyle: Trends and FadsMeaning: Our lifestyle is changing all the time and thereare different trends and fads at different times.
15 Meaning of the Sentences 2It is more than just clothing and hairstyles that are in style one year and out of date the next; it’s a whole way of living.Meaning: Not only clothing and hairstyles, but also thewhole lifestyles, are changing rapidly: they comeinto fashion one year, and go out of fashion thenext. This tendency has become a whole way ofliving.
16 Meaning of the Sentences 3Almost nothing in modern life gets away from the influence of fashion...Meaning: Almost everything in modern life is influencedby fashion...
17 Meaning of the Sentences 4... food, music, exercise, books, languages, movies, furniture, and even names go in and out of fashion.Meaning: ... almost anything, including food, music, exercise,books, language, movies, furniture, and evennames, can be popular at certain times and stopbeing popular at other times.
18 Meaning of the Sentences 5In the United States, even people can be “in” or “out”.Meaning: In the United States, even people can be infashion or out of fashion.
19 Meaning of the Sentences 6Americans enjoy following the lives of famous people: actors, sports heroes, well-known artists, politicians, and the like.Meaning: Americans enjoy learning about the lifestylesof famous people, such as actors, sports heroes,well-known artists, politicians and so on, andtry to lead a similar life.
20 Meaning of the Sentences In 1981, for example, an unknown elderly woman appeared in a TV advertisement in which she lookedat a very small hamburger and complained loudly, “Where’s the beef?”7Meaning: In 1981, for example, an unknown elderly womanwas on TV in an advertisement. In this advertisement,she looked at a very small hamburger and, feelingdissatisfied, said loudly and angrily, “Where’s thebeef?”
21 Meaning of the Sentences 8Suddenly she appeared in magazines and newspapers, and on TV shows.Meaning: Suddenly she became so popular that her nameappeared in magazines and newspapers, andshe was invited to take part in TV programs.
22 Meaning of the Sentences 9However, this kind of fame does not last long.Meaning: However, these kinds of people become wellknown and are widely talked about for only ashort time.
23 Meaning of the Sentences 10What causes such fads to come and go?Meaning: Why do such fads change so quickly?
24 Meaning of the Sentences 11Although clothing designers influence fads in fashion because they want to make money, this desire for money doesn’t explain fads in other areas, such as language.Meaning: Clothing designers start new fads in the area offashion because they want to earn money, butfads in other areas, such as fads in the area oflanguage, are not caused by people’s desire toearn money.
25 Meaning of the Sentences For example, why have teenagers in the past twenty-five years used—at different times—the words groovy or awesome in conversation instead of simply saying wonderful?12Meaning: For example, why have the young people usedthe words “groovy” or “awesome” at differentperiods of time in the past twenty-five years whentalking to others and not simply used “wonderful”,which has the same meaning?
26 Meaning of the Sentences According to an expert in popular culture, people who follow fads are not foolish or vain...13Meaning: An expert who studies popular culture says thatpeople follow fashionable interests or activitiesneither because they don’t have good sense norbecause they think too highly of themselves...
27 Meaning of the Sentences ... they simply want to be part of something new and creative.14Meaning: ... they simply want to take part in new andoriginal activities.
28 Meaning of the Sentences 15Fads are not limited to the United States, however.Meaning: However, fads exist not only in the United States,but also in other countries.
29 Meaning of the Sentences Fads are common in any country that has a strong economy (e.g. Britain, Japan, and Germany).16Meaning: Fads are common in any developed country,such as Britain, Japan, and Germany.
30 Meaning of the Sentences ... most Americans seem to feel that something is wrong if there isn’t frequent change in their lives.17Meaning: ... it seems that for most Americans, their livesshould often change; otherwise, they feel there issomething wrong.
31 Meaning of the Sentences A social trend, however, survives a long time and becomes a true part of modern culture.18Meaning: But a social trend continues to exist for a long timeand then becomes a real part of modern culture.
32 Meaning of the Sentences 19Who knows what changes in lifestyle will happen next?Meaning: It is hard to tell what changes in lifestyle willhappen next.
33 Main IdeaOur lifestyle is changing all the time and there are different trends and fads at different times. Not only clothing and hairstyle, but also the whole way of living are changing rapidly. But why do fads change so quickly? For some people, they just want to make money while for others, they simply want to take part in new and original activities. In spite of the difference between a fad and a trend, fads exist in every country. And no one knows what changes in lifestyle will happen next.Main Idea & Structure
34 StructurePart I: Para. 1Part II: Para. 2-4Part III: Para. 5-6Part IV: Para. 7-8Main idea: Introduction to the topic of the passage: trends and fadsMain idea: Illustration of the existence of different trends and fads at different timesMain idea: Concluding the passageMain idea: Explanation of the reasons of fads coming and going.
35 Words & Expressions New Words trend tendency appear complain fame advertisementcomplainfamecausedesireareacreativeeconomyadditionalfrequentsurvive
36 Words & Expressions Expressions out of date in/out of fashion and the likepay attention tocome and gomake money
37 New Words trend n. 【1】 a fashion or style 时尚；时髦 e.g. There is a trend among young people to study abroad. 年轻人中流行出国留学。【2】 a general tendency or direction in the way a situation is changing or developing 倾向；趋势；趋向e.g. If current trends continue, the world population could be 7 billion by the year 按目前的趋势，到2010 年全球人口将达到70 亿。Exercises
38 trend New Words Madonna is a perfect illustration of trend. Exercises1. 麦当娜是时尚的完美诠释。Madonna is a perfect illustration of trend.2. 男性越来越多地参与家务劳动，这已成为一种趋势。There is a trend towards more male participation in housework.
39 New Words tendency n. 倾向；趋势；趋向 e.g. Unhappy parents have a tendency to bring upunhappy children.不幸福的父母养育的子女也往往不幸福。Exercises她天生比较谨慎。She has a natural tendency toward caution.
40 New Words appear v. 【1】 become able to be seen; come into sight 出现；呈现 e.g. The symptoms don’t appear until a few days later.症状要到几天后才显现。【2】 seem; give other people a particular idea or feeling 似乎；好像；看来e.g. Love appears to be more beautiful in stories than in real life. 故事里的爱情似乎比现实生活中的要美一些。Exercises
41 appear New Words Gray began to appear in her black hair. Exercises1. 她乌黑的头发中露出了丝丝银发。Gray began to appear in her black hair.2. 都市人似乎永远在忙忙碌碌。City people appear to be hurrying all the time.
42 New Words advertisement n. 广告 e.g. This advertisement is full of exaggeration.这个广告满是夸张的言辞。Exercises我刚在报纸上看到你们的招聘广告，我想应聘。I’ve just seen your advertisement for jobs in the newspaper and I would like to apply.
43 complain v. 抱怨；发牢骚；诉苦；投诉 New Wordscomplain v. 抱怨；发牢骚；诉苦；投诉e.g. To complain about things all the time makes onesick. 老是发牢骚让人不舒服。Exercises如果商品质量不好，你应该向生产商投诉。If goods are not well made, you should complain to the manufacturer.
44 New Words fame n. 名气；名声；声誉 e.g. His fame did not come until after his death.他死后才成名。Exercises出名后的一个坏处就是人们在大街上对你指指点点。One of the disadvantages of fame is that people point at you in the street.
45 New Words cause v. lead to or be the cause of 导致；引起；使发生 e.g. The child’s headache may be caused by stress.这孩子的头痛可能是紧张引起的。n. 【1】a person, thing, or event that makes something happen 原因；起因e.g. Scientists are searching for the cause of the disease.科学家正在寻找这种疾病的起因。【2】a principle, aim or movement that is strongly defended or supported 事业；目标e.g. The organization has successfully gotten support for its cause. 该组织成功地为其事业赢得了支持。Exercises
46 cause New Words Poverty is not necessarily a cause of crime. Exercises1. 他的话引起了不同的反应。His words have caused different reactions.2. 贫穷不一定导致犯罪。Poverty is not necessarily a cause of crime.3. 他对自己的事业很有信心，因而不会改变主意。He has a strong belief in his cause and will not change his mind.
47 New Words desire n. a strong hope or wish 愿望；欲望；心愿 e.g. Attractive store displays can create a desire for the goods. 商店引人注目的陈设能激发人们的购买欲望。v. (formal) wish or want very much（ 正式）渴望；想要e.g. He suddenly desired a glass of beer at the sight of theadvertisement. 看到这则广告，他突然很想喝杯啤酒。Exercises
48 New WordsdesireExercises1. 在国外旅行了这么久，她萌发了再次回到家乡的愿望。After traveling out of her country for so long, she had a desire to go back to her hometown again.2. 我们渴望两国之间保持永久的和平。We desire a durable peace between the two nations.
49 New Wordsarean. 【1】(the range or limits of) a subject, activity, etc. 学科范围；领域；方面e.g. He has a wealth of experience in this area.他在这个领域有宝贵的经验。【2】a part or division of a region or of a country 地区；区域e.g. The police are trying to prevent people from entering that area. 警方正设法阻止人们进入那个区域。Exercises
50 area New Words This is a new area in the study of plants. Exercises1. 这是植物研究的新领域。This is a new area in the study of plants.2. 我们正计划在这个地区建一家工厂。We are planning to set up a factory in this area.
51 creative adj. 创造性的；有创造力的 New Wordscreative adj. 创造性的；有创造力的e.g. The problem is turning creative ideas into realproducts. 问题是要把有创造性的想法变成真实的产品。Exercises有创造力的人必须能够想象出某种事物、人物及场景。Creative people must be able to imagine objects, people and scenes.
52 New Wordseconomyn. 【1】 the system by which a country’s wealth is produced and used 经济情况；经济体制e.g. To understand a country’s economy, economists check the growth in a certain industry. 为了解一个国家的经济，经济学家们核查某种产业的增长情况。【2】 (an example of) the careful use of money, time, effort, etc., in order to avoid waste 节约；节省e.g. Let’s begin with economy in stationery. 让我们从节约办公用品做起。Exercises
53 New WordseconomyExercises1. 加入世贸组织给中国的经济带来了哪些好处？What did China’s economy benefit from entering the WTO?2. 新总裁决定在公司里实行节俭。The new president has decided to practice economy in the company.
54 additional adj. 另外的；附加的；追加的 New Wordsadditional adj. 另外的；附加的；追加的e.g. We offer additional courses to help students speakEnglish more fluently.我们另外开设其他课程以帮助学生更流利地说英语。Exercises如需任何其他信息，请来电。Please call for any additional information if you require.
55 frequent adj. 频繁的；屡见不鲜的；常见的 New Wordsfrequent adj. 频繁的；屡见不鲜的；常见的e.g. He needs frequent rests during work.他工作中时常需要休息一下。Exercises这座城市经常发生抢劫。Robberies are quite frequentin this city.
56 New Wordssurvivevi. continue to live or exist, especially after coming close to death 幸存；活下来；残存e.g. I can’t survive on $30 a week.靠每星期30 美元的生活费我没法生活。vt. continue to live or exist after 比······活得长；经历······之后还存在 e.g. Only special plants can survive the terrible climate of a desert. 只有特殊的植物才能在可怕的沙漠气候中存活下来。Exercises
57 survive New Words Very few of these records survive. Exercises1. 有的房屋和桥梁可以抗震。Some buildings and bridges can survive an earthquake.2. 这些唱片保留下来的寥寥无几。Very few of these records survive.
58 Expressions out of date 过时的；不用的 e.g. Don’t listen to him—his ideas are out of date.别听他的，他的想法已经过时了。Exercises玫瑰永远都是最受欢迎的花，因为爱情永远不会过时。Rose is going to remain the most popular flower because love is never out of date.
59 in/out of fashion 流行/不流行 Expressionsin/out of fashion 流行/不流行e.g. At present, Tang garments are in fashion in China.中国目前流行唐装。Exercises人们都笑话他的衣服又旧又过时。People laughed at him because his clothes were old and out of fashion.
60 Expressions and the like 诸如此类；等等 e.g. A furniture store sells beds, tables, chairs and the like.家具店出售床、桌子、椅子诸如此类的东西。Exercises我小儿子的包里总是放满了小动物、树叶等诸如此类的东西。My little boy’s bag is always filled with small animals, leaves and the like.
61 Expressions pay attention to 留心；注意 e.g. People thought he was stupid and never paid attentionto him. 人们认为他愚钝，从来不注意他。Exercises医生应该听病人怎么说，这点永远都很重要。It is always important for doctors to pay attention to what the patients say.
62 come and go 来来去去；忽隐忽现；变化无常 Expressionscome and go 来来去去；忽隐忽现；变化无常e.g. People come and go, but I will never forget you.人来人往，但我永远不会忘记您。Exercises潮流变来变去，但是这种款式却始终受到欢迎。Fashions come and go, but this style has always been popular.
63 Expressions make money 挣钱；赚钱 e.g. He came all the way to China just to make money.他大老远来到中国就是为了赚钱。Exercises别忘了这是商业，我们是来赚钱的。Don’t forget this is a commercial business and we are here to make money.
64 Exercises Using the Right Word Working with Expressions Focusing on Sentence StructureTranslatingUsing Topic-related TermsBasic Writing Skills
65 1. I’m going to sell the house, together with the f_________. urniture Using the Right WordComplete the following sentences with the help of the first letter(s). Fill in each blank with one word only. Use the words from the word list of Text A in this unit.1. I’m going to sell the house, together with the f_________.urniture2. You had a traffic accident, so you’ll have to ap_________ in court.pear3. There is an ad___________ for our new product in the local newspaper.vertisement4. I de____ nothing other than to be left in peace. So just go away.sire
66 Using the Right Word5. It is f_______ to spend money on something you don’t use.oolish6. We should try hard to develop tourism (旅游业). Tourism cr_____ jobs for local people.eate7. The development of the world’s e_______ will bringabout many new problems.conomy8. Mother will need ad_______ help to do the work since she is not in good health.ditional
67 Working with Expressions Fill in each of the blanks in the following sentences with a suitable preposition or adverb.1. Unfortunately, the hat I had just bought was no longer______fashion.2. You ought to pay more attention _____ the quality of thesegoods.3. I want to complain ______ the food and the service in thisrestaurant.4. The trend at the moment is _______ a more natural and lessmade-up look.intoabouttowards
68 Working with Expressions 5. I will meet Mr. Smith _______ the book club at 10 o’clock.6. We have invited an expert ______ this area to give us aspeech.7. I have a strong desire _______ fresh air after staying in thesmall room for several hours.8. His knowledge is only limited ________ what is taught in class.atinforto
69 Focusing on Sentence Structure A. Rewrite the following sentences after the model, using the expression “more than just”.Model:It is not only clothing and hairstyles that are in style one year and out of date the next; it’s a whole way of living.Key: It is more than just clothing and hairstyles that are instyle one year and out of date the next; it’s a wholeway of living.
70 Focusing on Sentence Structure 1. Children like it because it is not just a simple toy.2. Not only your life will be affected; it is the whole group.3. She cannot only sing well; she is also a good dancer.Children like it because it is more than just a simple toy.More than just your life will be affected; it is the wholegroup.She can more than just sing well; she is also a good dancer.
71 It seems that we’ll have fine weather today. Focusing on Sentence StructureB. Rewrite the following sentences after the model, using the word “appear”.Model:It seems that we’ll have fine weather today.Key: It appears that we’ll have fine weather today.
72 Focusing on Sentence Structure 1. It seems that you’ll be the only boy at the party.2. He seems to be friendly, but you still have to be careful.3. She seemed quite excited to hear that John was coming soon.It appears that you’ll be the only boy at the party.He appears to be friendly, but you still have to be careful.She appeared quite excited to hear that John was coming soon.
73 If he starts talking about the past, you’ll never get away from him. TranslatingA. Translate the following into English.1. 如果他一开始谈论过去，你就永远都没法从他那儿脱身。(get away from)If he starts talking about the past, you’ll never get away from him.2. 冬天失业率有上升的趋势。(tendency)There is a tendency for job losses to rise in the winter.
74 He sold his shop and opened a new one to make more money. TranslatingA. Translate the following into English.3. 在我不断地要求下，父亲终于同意和我一起去澳大利亚了。(frequent)Because of my frequent demands, father finally agreed to go to Australia with me.4. 他把老店卖了，开了一家新店，以便赚更多的钱。(make money)He sold his shop and opened a new one to make more money.
75 Translating B. Translate the following into Chinese. 1. It is more than just clothing and hairstyles that are in style oneyear and out of date the next; it’s a whole way of living.迅速变化的不仅仅只是一年流行而第二年就过时的服饰和发型，而是整个生活方式。2. In 1981, for example, an unknown elderly woman appeared ina TV advertisement in which she looked at a very smallhamburger and complained loudly, “Where’s the beef?”比如，1981 年，一位名不见经传的老妇人出现在一个电视广告里，她看着一只很小的汉堡包，大声抱怨道：“牛肉呢？”
76 Translating B. Translate the following into Chinese. 3. Although clothing designers influence fads in fashion because they want to make money, this desire for money doesn’t explain fads in other areas, such as language.尽管时装设计师影响时装潮流为的是赚钱，但这种赚钱的欲望并不能解释其他方面的时尚，例如语言。4. However, in the United States, there is an additional reason for fads: most Americans seem to feel that something is wrong if there isn’t frequent change in their lives.但是，在美国，时尚的发生另有其因：大多数美国人似乎觉得，如果他们的生活没有发生频繁的变化，那一定有什么地方不对劲了。
77 Using Topic-related Terms Use the following words and expressions to complete the passage below. Change the form where necessary.in style out of date fashioncome and go teenagers follow fadsAll types of fads _____________ around us. What is ________ today may go ___________ next month because the change is so fast. Some people, especially ____________ are busy _____________. In today’s society, almost everyone is influenced by ___________ to some degree.come and goin styleout of dateteenagersfollowing fadsfashion
78 Tenses Basic Writing Skills 英语写作中，动词的常用时态的使用主要遵循下列规则： 1. 关于事实、真理和习惯通常用一般现在时。例如：New Year’s Eve is the world’s oldest celebration. (Text A, Unit 6, Book 1)2. 对于发生在过去时间里的事实或事件通常使用一般过去时。例如：In fact, ancient people celebrated the New Year even before they had ways of measuring time. (Text A, Unit 6, Book 1)
79 Basic Writing Skills3. 对于发生在过去，但状态却一直持续到现在，或许将来还会发生的事情，通常使用现在完成时。例如：For more than twenty years, millions of Americans have been able to watch the New Year’s Eve celebrations in Times Square on television. (Text A, Unit 6, Book 1)4. 对于将要发生的动作或存在的状态，以及将来反复发生的动作或习惯性动作通常使用一般将来时。例如：At Sunday’s graduation. Su-kyeong Kim will speak to the 385 memebers of her class. (Text A, Unit 2, Book 1)
80 Basic Writing SkillsFill in the blanks with the appropriate forms of the verbs given in the brackets.When I was born, my grandfather 1) __________(name) me after a rich man who was famous during his time, and 2)________ (tell) me that all my life, I would love my name. When I 3) _____(be) in elementary school, my teachers only called me by my last name. When I was seven, my father 4)________ (give) me an English name, but I didn’t like my new name—it 5) _________(sound) very strange to me. When I was nine years old, my father 6) ________(change) my English name. I’ve recently changed my name again because I 7) _______ (get) married. To be honest, I would really like a name that expresses my dreams better. Maybe in the future I 8) ___________(change) my name again.namedtoldwasgavesoundedchangedgotwill change
81 Para 1&2 我们不断变化的生活方式：潮流和时尚 译 文我们不断变化的生活方式：潮流和时尚如今，生活方式有种迅速变化的趋势。迅速变化的不仅仅只是一年流行而第二年就过时的服饰和发型，而是整个生活方式。曾几何时，人们戴帽子，穿牛仔裤，喝白葡萄酒，到日本餐馆就餐，每天跑几英里健身。但到了第二年，所有这一切都变了：妇女们穿长裙，人们喝昂贵的法国进口水，到意大利餐馆就餐，似乎每个人都在健身俱乐部里锻炼身体。
82 Para 3译 文现代生活中几乎没有什么能逃过时尚的影响：食品、音乐、运动、书籍、语言、电影、家具，甚至名字都会经历时髦或者过时的过程。人们追随的兴趣爱好会很快地改变。
83 Para 4译 文在美国，甚至人也可以变得时尚或者过时。美国人喜欢追随名人的生活方式：演员、体育明星、著名艺人、政治家等。但是美国人也十分注意一点特殊才能都没有的人。比如，1981 年，一位名不见经传的老妇人出现在一个电视广告里，她看着一只很小的汉堡包，大声抱怨道：“牛肉呢？” 这三个字使她成了名。一时之间，她在杂志、报纸和电视上频频亮相，一下子大受欢迎，成了时尚。但是，这种名声并不持久。这种人只是在很短的一段时间里为众人所知——他们只是时尚。
84 Para 5译 文是什么使这种时尚来得快也去得快？尽管时装设计师影响时装潮流为的是赚钱，但这种赚钱的欲望并不能解释其他方面的时尚，例如语言。比如，为什么青少年在过去25年里的不同时代，谈话时使用“groovy（帅呆了）”或者“awesome（太棒了）”这样的词，而不只说“wonderful（好极了）”了呢？据一位流行文化专家说，追随时尚的人并不是愚蠢或爱慕虚荣；他们只是想成为富有创造性的新事物的一部分。
85 Para 6译 文不过，时尚并不只是美国才有。任何经济强国（如英国、日本、德国）都有时尚。但是，在美国，时尚发生另有原因：大多数美国人似乎觉得，如果他们的生活没有发生频繁的变化，那一定有什么地方不对劲了。
86 Para 7&8译 文有时候很难区别时尚和潮流。时尚持续时间很短，也不太重要。但是一种社会潮流能长时间存在，并且真正成为现代文化的一部分。例如，使用个人电脑是一种潮流，而使用某种电脑游戏只可能成为一种时尚。谁知道今后的生活方式又会发生什么样的变化呢？