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Anoxic Frames at Tate Jacob Thomas 1,2,*, Stephen Hackney 1, Joyce Townsend 1 1 Tate, London, UK 2 University College London, London, UK * Corresponding.

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Presentation on theme: "Anoxic Frames at Tate Jacob Thomas 1,2,*, Stephen Hackney 1, Joyce Townsend 1 1 Tate, London, UK 2 University College London, London, UK * Corresponding."— Presentation transcript:

1 Anoxic Frames at Tate Jacob Thomas 1,2,*, Stephen Hackney 1, Joyce Townsend 1 1 Tate, London, UK 2 University College London, London, UK * Corresponding author, Showcases Inside Out, Porto May 2009

2 A heat sealed barrier film bag with oxygen absorber anoxic solutions Depending on an institution’s budget, several different anoxic solutions are available for display of individual high- value objects and for bulk storage of lower value objects. These vary in price from a few euros to several million dollars. The anoxic case for the Waldseemüller map Image credit: NIST 07_1212.htm#w-map The anoxic case design for the refitting of the American Charters of Freedom Image credit: NIST The original anoxic case design for the American Charters of Freedom Image credit: NIST NBS, 1951, Preservation of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States, National Bureau of Standards. Showcases Inside Out, Porto24-26 May 2009

3 a brief history of anoxia at Tate early research ▫identify objects in Tate’s collection that might benefit from anoxia ▫develop several proof-of-concept frames ▫conduct comparative studies of light sensitive materials current research ▫design, build, and use an improved micro-fadeometer for measuring colour change under various atmospheres ▫define classes of objects and combinatorially prepare historically informed samples ▫implement high throughput headspace analysis to monitor paper degradation markers ▫improve upon existing frame designs to deliver a low-cost, mass- produceable anoxic frame next steps ▫continue research into other classes of objects ▫begin framing paper-based objects in anoxia Showcases Inside Out, Porto24-26 May 2009

4 why anoxia? limit colour change of specific colorants limit oxidative degradation of enclosed materials allow for object specific micro-climates by RH control and band-stop light filtering exclude exogenous pollutants and dust prevent water damage limit impact damage suppress RH fluctuations due to room based climate control failure permit longer display periods or display in higher light levels May 2009 Showcases Inside Out, Porto

5 24-26 May 2009Showcases Inside Out, Porto

6 a comparative study with oxygenwithout oxygen Showcases Inside Out, Porto24-26 May 2009 unaged

7 design pressures aesthetics ▫no visible valves, lines, or bellows ▫low-profile ▫Tate standard frame cost efficient ▫suitable for objects with a range of values stable and maintenance-free ▫durable and conservation grade construction ▫10 years lifetime between open case inspections easy to use ▫no special skills required ▫fitting and unfitting should be rapid and non-damaging no additional staff or resources needed ▫mounting/fitting ▫hanging ▫storage Showcases Inside Out, Porto24-26 May 2009

8 pressed and welded aluminium body directional valve butyl rubber seal fluorescence-based oxygen sensors evolution of frame design early frame designpresent frame design bent perspex or aluminium body septa for gas filling two Beva or butyl seals per unit colorimetric oxygen sensors Showcases Inside Out, Porto24-26 May 2009

9 historical and experimental evidence May 2009 Showcases Inside Out, Porto reduced colour change under anoxia no difference between anoxia and 21% oxygen increased colour change in anoxia Alizarin crimson, a Orpiment a Chrome deep, a Realgar a Prussian blue, a Antwerp blue a Madder/potash, b Yellow lake, b Powdered kermes, b Madder lake, b Carmine, b Eosine, b Dragon's blood, b Cochineal, b Lac/alum, b Bitumen, b Brazilwood, b Gummigut, b Lac/lake, b Quercitron lake, b Gamboge, b Saffron, b Brazilwood/potash, b Alizarin Crimson, b Lac/potash, b Indian lake, b Magenta, b Purple madder, b Brazilwwod/lake, b Realgar powder, b Lac/no mordant, b Naples yellow, b Lithol red, b Muave, b Sepia, b Orpiment, b Madder/no mordant, b Madder/alum, b Brazilwood/alum, b Brazilwood/no mordant b Prussian blue, b Rhodamine, b Cinnebar, b Indian yellow, b Emerald green, b Indigo b Red lead, b Verdigris, b Rose madder b Several different indigo preparations j Blue wool L2, c Xenon reference fabric, e Fustic, c Tumeric c Blue wool L6, c Indigo, c Fluorescent yellow d Fluorescent pink d Malachite, b,k Azurite, b,k Vermilion, b,k Iron oxide red, b,k Yellow ocher, b,k Hematite, b,k White lead, b,k Indigo b,k Red lead, b,k* Massicot, b,k* Magenta (rasaniline, fuchsine), a Archil (orchil), a Brazil wood, a Saffron, a Yellow Persian berry lake (sap yellow, buckthorn yellow, stil de grain vert), a Green Persian berry lake (sap green) a Malachite, b Cinnebar, b Red lead, b Sienna, b Litharge b Carmine, f Green felt pen (acidic triphenylmethane), g Geranium lake, f Alizarin, a Gamboge, d ISO Blue 2, c ISO Blue 1, c Yellow felt pen (acidic triphenyl methane), g Gamboge, a Mauve, a Red felt pen (acidic triphenylmethane), g Carmine, a Purpurine, d Carmine, d Alizarin f Vermillion azo, f Prussian blue f C.I. Basic Blue 3 (oxazine), h C.I. Basic Orange 22 (methin), h C.I. basic Blue 18 (triphenylmethane), h C.I. Basic Blue 12 (oxazine), h Astra Violet FN Extra (methin), h C.I. Basic Blue 26 (triphenylmethane) h Diazacyanine blue, h* Diazacyanine yellow h* Carmine, a Crimson lake, a Scarlet lake, a Rose madder, a Madder lake, a Brown madder, a Gamboge, a Aurleolin, a Cadmium yellow, a Yellow Ochre, a Naples yellow, a Indian yellow, a Emerald green, a Olive green, a Indigo blue, a Leitches blue (cyanin), a Permanent blue, a Paynes grey, a Vandyke brown, a Burnt umber, a Brown pink, a Vermillion, a Indian red, a Venetian Red, a Burnt sienna, a Chrome yellow, a Lemon yellow, a Raw sienna, a Terra verte, a Chrome oxide, a Cobalt blue, a French blue, a Ultrmarine ash, a Violet carmine, a purple carmine, a purple madder, a sepia a Prussian blue, a * Aureolin, a * Cadmium yellow, a * Naples yellow, a * Indian yellow, a * Emerald green, a * Olive green, a * Antwerp blue, a * Leichtes blue (cyanin), a * Brown pink, a * Tumeric, i Annatto i Prussian blue i a) pigment in gum Arabic b) pigment without binding media c) dye on wool d) dye on cellulose e) dye on polyester f) oil paint with flake white extender g) pen on paper h) dye on cotton, viscose rayon, cellulose acetate, silk, wool, and orlon i) dye on cotton, silk and wool j) dye on cotton k) pigment in glue * indicates that colour change is increased in anoxia in the presence of moisture

10 historically informed reproductions and high throughput screening May 2009Showcases Inside Out, Porto

11 real objects and real problems access quality control storage handling and hanging transport endogenous pollutants increased fading of some colorants Showcases Inside Out, Porto24-26 May 2009

12 Showcases Inside Out, Porto


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