Terre Verte In medieval painting, it is the light, cold green of celadonite, found chiefly in small deposits in rock in the area of Verona, Italy. The chief deposits of glauconite, which yield the yellowish and olive sorts, are in Czechoslovakia.
Blue Pigments Recipes for blue pigments were mentioned extensively in medieval artists' manuals
Recipes for Blue Old Latin manuscripts contain recipes for making blue pigments from both copper and silver. This search for ways to create colors more cheaply is early chemistry.
Egyptian Blue It is one of the oldest man-made colors. Commonly found on wall paintings in Egypt, Mesopotamia and Rome. Calcium copper silicate
Iron or Prussian Blue The iron blues are the first of the artificial pigments with a known history and an established date of first preparation. The color was made by the Berlin colormaker Diesbach in or around 1704. The material is so complex in composition and method of manufacture that there is practically no possibility that it was synthesized independently in other times or places.
Alexander the Great destroyed the city of Tyre by filling its prosperous harbors with silt and killing or enslaving its inhabitants.
Most Dyes Came from Organic Sources Mostly plants like indigo for blue or madder root for red. But also a few animals like cochineal beetles for carmine. Hampden-Sydney's "garnet and grey" colors date back to the Civil War when the students dyed their civil war uniforms with pokeberries and butternut hickory husks.
Carmine A dyestuff precipitated on clay. Made from the ground female Coccus cacti, or cochineal, insect which lives on various cactus plants in Mexico and in Central and South America.
Encaustic The Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans often used beeswax as the medium for pigments. The encaustic method was in very common use until the 8th century A.D. and is still used by a few painters today. In this technique finely ground pigment is mixed in melted wax and applied to the surface. Waxes are polymers composed predominantly of hydrocarbons.
Fresco In fresco painting, the medium and the surface are the same. An aqueous suspension of the pigment is applied directly to a wet plaster of calcium hydroxide and fine sand. The pigment is absorbed and is bound into the surface as the plaster dries.
Egg Tempera Until the 15th century, egg yolk was used as the most common binder and medium for paints. Egg tempera is prepared by mixing egg yolks with a slurry of artist's pigment in water. Enough water is added to provide the proper consistency for painting.
Oil By the 15th century, oil paints, using vegetable oils as the medium, replaced egg tempera as the most common paint. The oil most commonly used is linseed oil which is obtained from the seed of the flax plant. The oil does not dry but rather is cross-linked where there are carbon- carbon double bonds in the oil.
Watercolor In water paints, the pigments are usually very finely ground mineral- based transition metal compounds. The vehicle is an aqueous solution of gum arabic, a resin prepared from the sap of the African acacia tree. This resin is a translucent water- soluble polymer. The resulting paintings usually retain a translucent quality; they appear bright in part because the whiteness of the paper is reflected through layers of the paints.
Acrylic These paints use an aqueous suspension of both the pigment and monomers of compounds such as methyl acrylate and vinyl acetate. The paint does not become plastic until the monomers combine. In a process similar to the "drying" of oil paints, these monomers are linked together by a chain reaction to form a polymer molecule that is insoluble in both water and most organic solvents.