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PHOTOSYNTHESIS Source of usable energy for living things.

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Presentation on theme: "PHOTOSYNTHESIS Source of usable energy for living things."— Presentation transcript:

1 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Source of usable energy for living things

2 Why is photosynthesis important? 1.The majority (90%) of the energy we use for transportation, appliances, and communications today comes from oil and coal 2.The energy in oil and coal was produced through the process of photosynthesis and was then transformed by millions of years of change

3 Why is photosynthesis important? 3.Without photosynthesis, all living organisms (except a few types of bacteria) would be unable to survive 4.Plants converts air, light, and water into billions of tons of sugar every year using photosynthesis

4 Why is photosynthesis important? 5.The majority of the sugar produced by plants is converted into structures inside the plant itself, including wood, fiber, cellulose, and amino acids 6.94% of the dry weight of plants is directly due to photosynthesis – the mass of a plant is due to air, water, and light

5 Why go through photosynthesis? 1.Cells require energy to carry out their necessary functions 2.The main energy source for cells is a molecule called ATP (adenosine triphosphate) that releases energy when one phosphate molecule is removed

6 Why go through photosynthesis? 3.ATP only lasts for a few seconds and must be produced constantly by breaking down glucose, a simple carbohydrate 4.A total of 36 ATP can be generated from breaking down one glucose molecule making it a very efficient storage molecule for energy

7 Why go through photosynthesis? 5.Plants can carry out photo- synthesis in the chloroplasts by collecting solar energy in the pigment molecule chlorophyll

8 What is Chlorophyll 1.Sunlight is composed of many different wavelengths ranging from violet to red 2.Chlorophyll is green because it absorbs all the wavelengths but green 3.The e - in chlorophyll gain a higher energy level when a wavelength is absorbed and then bounce around the ring – porphyrin (blue )

9 What is Photosynthesis? 1.Photosynthesis is a series of chemical reactions that are represented by the following combined reaction 2.6CO H 2 O + light energy C 6 H 12 O 6 (glucose) + 6O 2 + 6H 2 O

10 What is Photosynthesis?

11 What happens during photosynthesis? 1.Photosynthesis is the carried out by two different series of reactions A. The Light-Dependant Reactions B. The Light-Independent Reactions 2.Both processes are essential and even though they are cyclical, the occur simultaneously

12 Light Dependent Reactions Occurs in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast Produces two energy carrying molecules, ATP and NADPH Simulation

13 Light Independent Reactions The purpose of the light independent reactions is to fix carbon from the atmosphere into glucose Occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast

14 Light Independent Reactions The Calvin cycle requires 6 molecules of CO 2 to produce one molecule of glucose – this requires 6 turns of the cycle

15 What is ATP? Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) The energy storage molecule of cells The energy storage molecule of cells

16 How is ATP formed? ADP (adenosine diphosphate) in cells can be converted to ATP (adenosine triphosphate), by the addition of a phosphate. The bond holding this third phosphate on is a high energy bond. The energy required to make this bond is stored in the bond, therefore ATP is an energy storage compound.

17 Visible Light Spectrum

18 Pigments 1.Chlorophyll is a pigment. It absorbs red and blue light, and transmits green light 2.Carotenoids absorb violet and blue light

19 Spectrophotometer Measures ability of a pigment to absorb or transmit light Measures ability of a pigment to absorb or transmit light

20

21 Chromatography Pigments have different rates of flow on filter paper Pigments have different rates of flow on filter paper Petroleum Ether is the solvent used to carry the pigment Petroleum Ether is the solvent used to carry the pigment Heavier pigments travel least distance Heavier pigments travel least distance Light weight pigments travel farthest Light weight pigments travel farthest

22 IIIIIIIIIIIII ORANGE……... CAROTENE IIIIIIIIIIIII YELLOW....XANTHOPHYLL IIIIIIIIIIIII LIGHT GREEN.....CHLOR. A IIIIIIIIIIIII DARKGREEN…...CHLOR. B IIIIIIIIIIIII RED………..ANTHOCYANIN ChromatographyChromatography


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