Presentation on theme: "Capital Budgeting Decisions"— Presentation transcript:
1Capital Budgeting Decisions Chapter 13ACTG 202 – Principles of Managerial AccountingTime Value of Money Assignment5 icqs
2Typical Capital Budgeting Decisions Plant expansionEquipment selectionEquipment replacementLease or buyCost reduction
3Typical Capital Budgeting Decisions Capital budgeting tends to fall into two broad categories.Screening decisions. Does a proposed project meet some preset standard of acceptance?Preference decisions. Selecting from among several competing courses of action.
4Time Value of MoneyThe discussion of capital budgeting begins with a discussion of the time value of money.A dollar today is worth more than a dollar a year from now.Therefore, projects that promise earlier returns are preferable to those that promise later returns.
5Time Value of MoneyThe capital budgeting techniques that best recognize the time value of money are those that involve discounted cash flows.
6Present Value and Future Value Need to introduce use of TI calculator!!!!Setting decimal places – 2ND FORMAT 9 ENTERTVM line of functionsClearing TVM 2nd QUIT; 2nd CLR TVMIf your rich uncle offered you $10,000 today or $10,000 at in 3 years, which would you take? What about $11,000, $15,000?FV of $10,000 compounded annually at 5%. (CALCULATE MANUALLY AND WITH CALCULATOR)PV of $11,576/25 over 3 years at 5% = $10,000 (PV)Annuity – stream of equal cash flowsPV of $200 per year for 3 yearsDo by year – then calculate – PV is $545
7Determine the payback period for an investment. Learning Objective 1Determine the payback period for an investment.
8The Payback MethodThe payback method focuses on the payback period, which is the length of time that it takes for a project to recoup its initial cost out of the cash receipts that it generates.Ex (page 609)
9Evaluation of the Payback Method Ignores thetime valueof money.Short-comingsof the paybackmethod.Shorter payback period does not always mean a more desirable investment.Ignores cashflows afterthe paybackperiod.
10Evaluation of the Payback Method Serves as screening tool.Strengthsof the paybackperiod.Identifies investments that recoup cash investments quickly.Identifies products that recoup initial investment quickly.
11Learning Objective 2Evaluate the acceptability of an investment project using the net present value method.
12The Net Present Value Method The net present value method compares the present value of a project’s cash inflows with the present value of its cash outflows. The difference between these two streams of cash flows is called the net present value.
13The Net Present Value Method To determine net present value we . . .Calculate the present value of cash inflows,Calculate the present value of cash outflows,Subtract the present value of the outflows from the present value of the inflows.The idea is to bring EVERYTHING back to its value at time zero.An interest rate needs to be selected and used in the calculation.Ex (page 609)Ex (page 610)Ex (page 611)
14The Net Present Value Method Two Simplifying AssumptionsAll cash flows other than the initial investment occur at the end of periods.All cash flows generated by an investment project are immediately reinvested at a rate of return equal to the discount rate.
15iClicker Quick Check Denny Associates has been offered a four-year contract to supply the computing requirements for a local bank.The working capital would be released at the end of the contract.Denny Associates requires a 14% return.
16The Net Present Value Method Why do we focus on PV rather than FV?
17Choosing a Discount Rate The company’s cost of capital is usually regarded as the minimum required rate of return.The cost of capital is the average return the company must pay to its long-term creditors and stockholders.
18Learning Objective 3Evaluate the acceptability of an investment project using the internal rate of return method.
19Internal Rate of Return Method The internal rate of return is the rate of return promised by an investment project over its useful life. It is computed by finding the discount rate that will cause the net present value of a project to be zero.It works very well if a project’s cash flows are identical every year. If the annual cash flows are not identical software, such as Excel, must be used for the calculation.
20Internal Rate of Return Method General decision rule . . .Ex (page 609)Ex (page 612)When using the internal rate of return, the cost of capital acts as a hurdle rate that a project must clear for acceptance.
21Comparing the Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return Methods NPV is often simpler to use.Questionable assumption:Internal rate of return method assumes cash inflows are reinvested at the internal rate of return.
22Least Cost DecisionsIn decisions where revenues are not directly involved, managers should choose the alternative that has the least total cost from a present value perspective.
23Evaluate an investment project that has uncertain cash flows. Learning Objective 4Evaluate an investment project that has uncertain cash flows.
24Uncertain Cash Flows – An Example Assume that all of the cash flows related to an investment in a supertanker have been estimated, except for its salvage value in 20 years.Using a discount rate of 12%, management has determined that the net present value of all the cash flows, except the salvage value is a negative $1.04 million.How large would the salvage value need to be to make this investment attractive?
25Uncertain Cash Flows – An Example If the salvage value of the supertanker is at least $10,000,000, the net present value of the investment would be positive and therefore acceptable.Ex (page 609)
26Rank investment projects in order of preference. Learning Objective 5Rank investment projects in order of preference.
27Preference Decision – The Ranking of Investment Projects Screening DecisionsPreference DecisionsPertain to whether or not some proposed investment is acceptable; these decisions come first.Attempt to rank acceptable alternatives from the most to least appealing.
28Internal Rate of Return Method When using the internal rate of return method to rank competing investment projects, the preference rule is:The higher the internal rate of return, the more desirable the project.
29Net Present Value Method The net present value of one project cannot be directly compared to the net present value of another project unless the investments are equal.
30Ranking Investment Projects Project Net present value of the project profitability Investment required index=Ex (page 610)The higher the profitability index, themore desirable the project.
31Time Value of Money Calculations There are a variety of resources for doing time value of money calculations:Financial Calculator (such as your TI)ExcelExcel contains a number of functions for doing time value of money calculationsThese functions include:PV functionIRR functionFV functionPMT functionRATE functionTables and factors?Show Excel spreadsheetShow some other types of calculations that can be done with time value of money concepts.Loan payment - $250,000; 4.25%/year; 30 years, paid monthly = $1,229.85Future value - $20,000 today; 6% per year, compounded quarterly; 20 years = $65,813 (annual compounding is $64,143)Calculate interest rate – buy $50,000 car with $5,000 down; payment is $1,217 over 60 months; no residual = I = 20.98%