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**Capital Budgeting Decisions**

14-1 Capital Budgeting Decisions Chapter 14: Capital Budgeting Decisions. The term capital budgeting is used to describe how managers plan significant cash outlays on projects that have long-term implications, such as the purchase of new equipment and the introduction of new products. This chapter describes several tools that can be used by managers to help make these types of investment decisions. Chapter 14 1

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**Typical Capital Budgeting Decisions**

14-2 Typical Capital Budgeting Decisions Plant expansion Equipment selection Equipment replacement Lease or buy Cost reduction Capital budgeting analysis can be used for any decision that involves an outlay now in order to obtain some future return. Typical capital budgeting decisions include: Cost reduction decisions. Should new equipment be purchased to reduce costs? Expansion decisions. Should a new plant or warehouse be purchased to increase capacity and sales? Equipment selection decisions. Which of several available machines should be purchased? Lease or buy decisions. Should new equipment be leased or purchased? Equipment replacement decisions. Should old equipment be replaced now or later? 2

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**Typical Capital Budgeting Decisions**

14-3 Typical Capital Budgeting Decisions Capital budgeting tends to fall into two broad categories . . . Screening decisions. Does a proposed project meet some preset standard of acceptance? Preference decisions. Selecting from among several competing courses of action. There are two main types of capital budgeting decisions: Screening decisions relate to whether a proposed project passes a preset hurdle. For example, a company may have a policy of accepting projects only if they promise a return of 20% on the investment. Preference decisions relate to selecting among several competing courses of action. For example, a company may be considering several different machines to replace an existing machine on the assembly line. In this chapter, we initially discuss ways of making screening decisions. Preference decisions are discussed toward the end of the chapter. 3

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14-4 Time Value of Money A dollar today is worth more than a dollar a year from now. Therefore, projects that promise earlier returns are preferable to those that promise later returns. The time value of money concept recognizes that a dollar today is worth more than a dollar a year from now. Therefore, projects that promise earlier returns are preferable to those that promise later returns. 4

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14-5 Time Value of Money The capital budgeting techniques that best recognize the time value of money are those that involve discounted cash flows. The capital budgeting techniques that best recognize the time value of money are those that involve discounted cash flows (the concepts of discounting cash flows and using present value tables are explained in greater detail in Appendix 14A). 5

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14-6 Learning Objective 1 Evaluate the acceptability of an investment project using the net present value method. Learning objective number 1 is to evaluate the acceptability of an investment project using the net present value method. 6

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**The Net Present Value Method**

14-7 The Net Present Value Method To determine net present value we . . . Calculate the present value of cash inflows, Calculate the present value of cash outflows, Subtract the present value of the outflows from the present value of the inflows. The net present value method compares the present value of a project’s cash inflows with the present value of its cash outflows. The difference between these two streams of cash flows is called the net present value. 7

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**The Net Present Value Method**

14-8 The Net Present Value Method The net present value is interpreted as follows: If the net present value is positive, then the project is acceptable. If the net present value is zero, then the project is acceptable. If the net present value is negative, then the project is not acceptable. 8

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**The Net Present Value Method**

14-9 The Net Present Value Method Net present value analysis emphasizes cash flows and not accounting net income. The reason is that accounting net income is based on accruals that ignore the timing of cash flows into and out of an organization. Net present value analysis (as well as the internal rate of return, which will be discussed shortly) emphasizes cash flows and not accounting net income. The reason is that accounting net income is based on accruals that ignore the timing of cash flows into and out of an organization. 9

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**Typical Cash Outflows Repairs and maintenance Working capital Initial**

14-10 Typical Cash Outflows Repairs and maintenance Working capital Initial investment Examples of typical cash outflows that are included in net present value calculations are as shown. Notice the term working capital which is defined as current assets less current liabilities. The initial investment in working capital is a cash outflow at the beginning of the project for items such as inventories. It is recaptured at the end of the project when working capital is no longer required. Thus, working capital is recognized as a cash outflow at the beginning of the project and a cash inflow at the end of the project. Incremental operating costs 10

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**Typical Cash Inflows Salvage value Release of working capital**

14-11 Typical Cash Inflows Salvage value Release of working capital Reduction of costs Examples of typical cash inflows that are included in net present value calculations are as shown. Incremental revenues 11

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**Recovery of the Original Investment**

14-12 Recovery of the Original Investment Depreciation is not deducted in computing the present value of a project because . . . It is not a current cash outflow. Discounted cash flow methods automatically provide for a return of the original investment. The net present value method excludes depreciation for two reasons: First, depreciation is not a current cash outflow. Second, discounted cash flow methods automatically provide for a return of the original investment, thereby making a deduction for depreciation unnecessary. 12

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**Recovery of the Original Investment**

14-13 Recovery of the Original Investment Carver Hospital is considering the purchase of an attachment for its X-ray machine No investments are to be made unless they have an annual return of at least 10%. Will we be allowed to invest in the attachment? Assume the facts as shown with respect to Carver Hospital. Will we be allowed to invest in the attachment? 13

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**Recovery of the Original Investment**

14-14 Recovery of the Original Investment The net present value of the investment is zero. Present value of an annuity of $1 table 14

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**Recovery of the Original Investment**

14-15 Recovery of the Original Investment This implies that the cash inflows are sufficient to recover the $3,170 initial investment (therefore depreciation is unnecessary) and to provide exactly a 10 percent return on the investment. This implies that the cash inflows are sufficient to recover the $3,170 initial investment (therefore depreciation is unnecessary) and to provide exactly a 10% return on the investment. 15

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**Two Simplifying Assumptions**

14-16 Two Simplifying Assumptions Two simplifying assumptions are usually made in net present value analysis: All cash flows other than the initial investment occur at the end of periods. All cash flows generated by an investment project are immediately reinvested at a rate of return equal to the discount rate. Two simplifying assumptions are usually made in net present value analysis: The first assumption is that all cash flows other than the initial investment occur at the end of periods. The second assumption is that all cash flows generated by an investment project are immediately reinvested at a rate of return equal to the discount rate. 16

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**Choosing a Discount Rate**

14-17 Choosing a Discount Rate The firm’s cost of capital is usually regarded as the minimum required rate of return. The cost of capital is the average rate of return the company must pay to its long-term creditors and stockholders for the use of their funds. A company’s cost of capital, which is defined as the average rate of return a company must pay to its long-term creditors and shareholders for the use of their funds, is usually regarded as the minimum required rate of return. When the cost of capital is used as the discount rate, it serves as a screening device in net present value analysis. 17

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**The Net Present Value Method**

14-18 The Net Present Value Method Lester Company has been offered a five year contract to provide component parts for a large manufacturer. Assume the information as shown with respect to Lester Company. 18

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**The Net Present Value Method**

14-19 The Net Present Value Method At the end of five years the working capital will be released and may be used elsewhere by Lester. Lester Company uses a discount rate of 10%. Should the contract be accepted? Also assume that at the end of five years the working capital will be released and may be used elsewhere. Lester Company’s discount rate is 10 percent. Should the contract be accepted? 19

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**The Net Present Value Method**

14-20 The Net Present Value Method Annual net cash inflow from operations The annual net cash inflow from operations of $80,000 is computed as shown. 20

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**The Net Present Value Method**

14-21 The Net Present Value Method Since the investments in equipment and working capital occur immediately, the discounting factor used is 21

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**The Net Present Value Method**

14-22 The Net Present Value Method Present value of an annuity of $1 factor for 5 years at 10%. The present value factor for an annuity of $1 for five years at 10 percent is Therefore, the present value of the annual net cash inflows is $303,280. 22

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**The Net Present Value Method**

14-23 The Net Present Value Method Present value of $1 factor for 3 years at 10%. The present value factor of $1 for three years at 10 percent is Therefore, the present value of the cost of relining the equipment in three years is $22,530. 23

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**The Net Present Value Method**

14-24 The Net Present Value Method Present value of $1 factor for 5 years at 10%. The present value factor of $1 for five years at 10 percent is Therefore, the present value of the salvage value of the equipment is $3,105. 24

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**The Net Present Value Method**

14-25 The Net Present Value Method The net present value of the investment opportunity is $85,955. Since the net present value is positive, it suggests making the investment. Accept the contract because the project has a positive net present value. 25

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14-26 Quick Check Denny Associates has been offered a four-year contract to supply the computing requirements for a local bank. Assume the information provided for Denny Associates. The working capital would be released at the end of the contract. Denny Associates requires a 14% return. 26

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14-27 Quick Check What is the net present value of the contract with the local bank? a. $150,000 b. $ 28,230 c. $ 92,340 d. $132,916 What is the net present value of the contract with the local bank? 27

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14-28 Quick Check What is the net present value of the contract with the local bank? a. $150,000 b. $ 28,230 c. $ 92,340 d. $132,916 $28,230. Take a minute and review the solution presented. 28

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14-29 Learning Objective 2 Evaluate the acceptability of an investment project using the internal rate of return method. Learning objective number 2 is to evaluate the acceptability of an investment project using the internal rate of return method. 29

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**Internal Rate of Return Method**

14-30 Internal Rate of Return Method The internal rate of return is the rate of return promised by an investment project over its useful life. It is computed by finding the discount rate that will cause the net present value of a project to be zero. It works very well if a project’s cash flows are identical every year. If the annual cash flows are not identical, a trial and error process must be used to find the internal rate of return. The internal rate of return is the rate promised by an investment project over its useful life. It is sometimes referred to as the yield on a project. The internal rate of return is the discount rate that will result in a net present value of zero. The internal rate of return works very well if a project’s cash flows are identical every year. If the cash flows are not identical every year, a trial-and-error process can be used to find the internal rate of return. 30

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**Internal Rate of Return Method**

14-31 Internal Rate of Return Method General decision rule . . . If the internal rate of return is equal to or greater than the minimum required rate of return, then the project is acceptable. If it is less than the required rate of return, then the project is rejected. When using internal rate of return, the cost of capital acts as a hurdle rate that a project must clear for acceptance. When using the internal rate of return, the cost of capital acts as a hurdle rate that a project must clear for acceptance. 31

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**Internal Rate of Return Method**

14-32 Internal Rate of Return Method Decker Company can purchase a new machine at a cost of $104,320 that will save $20,000 per year in cash operating costs. The machine has a 10-year life. Assume the facts as shown with respect to the Decker Company. 32

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**Internal Rate of Return Method**

14-33 Internal Rate of Return Method Future cash flows are the same every year in this example, so we can calculate the internal rate of return as follows: Investment required Annual net cash flows PV factor for the internal rate of return = Since the cash flows are the same every year, the equation shown can be used to compute the appropriate present value factor of $104, 320 $20,000 = 33

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**Internal Rate of Return Method**

14-34 Internal Rate of Return Method Using the present value of an annuity of $1 table . . . Find the 10-period row, move across until you find the factor Look at the top of the column and you find a rate of 14%. Using the present value of an annuity of $1 table, the internal rate of return is equal to 14 percent. 34

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**Internal Rate of Return Method**

14-35 Internal Rate of Return Method Decker Company can purchase a new machine at a cost of $104,320 that will save $20,000 per year in cash operating costs. The machine has a 10-year life. The internal rate of return on this project is 14%. If Decker’s minimum required rate of return is equal to or greater than 14 percent, then the machine should be purchased. If the internal rate of return is equal to or greater than the company’s required rate of return, the project is acceptable. 35

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14-36 Quick Check The expected annual net cash inflow from a project is $22,000 over the next 5 years. The required investment now in the project is $79,310. What is the internal rate of return on the project? a. 10% b. 12% c. 14% d. Cannot be determined Assume the facts given for this project. What is the internal rate of return on the project? 36

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14-37 Quick Check The expected annual net cash inflow from a project is $22,000 over the next 5 years. The required investment now in the project is $79,310. What is the internal rate of return on the project? a. 10% b. 12% c. 14% d. Cannot be determined $79,310/$22,000 = 3.605, which is the present value factor for an annuity over five years when the interest rate is 12%. 12 percent. Take a minute and review the solution to the problem. $79,310 divided by $22,000 equals which is the present value factor for an annuity over five years when the interest rate is 12 percent. 37

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**Comparing the Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return Methods**

14-38 Comparing the Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return Methods NPV is often simpler to use. Questionable assumption: Internal rate of return method assumes cash inflows are reinvested at the internal rate of return. The net present value method offers two important advantages over the internal rate of return method. The net present value method is often simpler to use. The internal rate of return method makes a questionable assumption – that cash inflows can be reinvested at the internal rate of return. 38

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**Comparing the Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return Methods**

14-39 Comparing the Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return Methods NPV is often simpler to use. Questionable assumption: Internal rate of return method assumes cash inflows are reinvested at the internal rate of return. If the internal rate of return is high, this assumption may be unrealistic. It is more realistic to assume that the cash flows can be reinvested at the discount rate, which is the underlying assumption of the net present value method. 39

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**Expanding the Net Present Value Method**

14-40 Expanding the Net Present Value Method To compare competing investment projects we can use the following net present value approaches: Total-cost Incremental cost We will now expand the net present value method to include two alternatives and the concept of relevant costs. The net present value method can be used to compare competing investment projects in two ways – the total cost approach and the incremental cost approach. 40

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**The Total-Cost Approach**

14-41 The Total-Cost Approach White Company has two alternatives: (1) remodel an old car wash or, (2) remove it and install a new one. The company uses a discount rate of 10%. Assume that White Company has two alternatives – remodel an old car wash or remove the old car wash and replace it with a new one. The company uses a discount rate of 10 percent. The annual net cash inflows are $60,000 for the new car wash and $45,000 for the old car wash. 41

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**The Total-Cost Approach**

14-42 The Total-Cost Approach If White installs a new washer . . . In addition, assume that the information as shown relates to the installation of a new washer. Let’s look at the present value of this alternative. 42

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**The Total-Cost Approach**

14-43 The Total-Cost Approach The net present value of installing a new washer is $83,202. If we install the new washer, the investment will yield a positive net present value of $83,202. 43

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**The Total-Cost Approach**

14-44 The Total-Cost Approach If White remodels the existing washer . . . If White chooses to remodel the existing washer, the remodeling costs would be $175,000 and the cost to replace the brushes at the end of six years would be $80,000. Let’s look at the present value of this second alternative. 44

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**The Total-Cost Approach**

14-45 The Total-Cost Approach If we remodel the existing washer, we will produce a positive net present value of $56,405. The net present value of remodeling the old washer is $56,405. 45

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**The Total-Cost Approach**

14-46 The Total-Cost Approach Both projects yield a positive net present value. While both projects yield a positive net present value, the net present value of the new washer alternative is $26,797 higher than the remodeling alternative. However, investing in the new washer will produce a higher net present value than remodeling the old washer. 46

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**The Incremental-Cost Approach**

14-47 The Incremental-Cost Approach Under the incremental-cost approach, only those cash flows that differ between the two alternatives are considered. Let’s look at an analysis of the White Company decision using the incremental-cost approach. Under the incremental cost approach, only those cash flows that differ between the remodeling and replacing alternatives are considered. 47

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**The Incremental-Cost Approach**

14-48 The Incremental-Cost Approach We get the same answer under either the total-cost or incremental-cost approach. The differential cash flows between the alternatives are as shown. Notice, the net present value of $26,797 is identical to the answer derived from the total cost approach. 48

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14-49 Quick Check Consider the following alternative projects. Each project would last for five years. Project A Project B Initial investment $80,000 $60,000 Annual net cash inflows 20,000 16,000 Salvage value 10,000 8,000 The company uses a discount rate of 14% to evaluate projects. Which of the following statements is true? a. NPV of Project A > NPV of Project B by $5,230 b. NPV of Project B > NPV of Project A by $5,230 c. NPV of Project A > NPV of Project B by $2,000 d. NPV of Project B > NPV of Project A by $2,000 Consider the information provided for two alternative projects. The company uses a discount rate of 14 percent to evaluate projects. Which of the following statements is true? 49

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14-50 Quick Check Consider the following alternative projects. Each project would last for five years. Project A Project B Initial investment $80,000 $60,000 Annual net cash inflows 20,000 16,000 Salvage value 10,000 8,000 The company uses a discount rate of 14% to evaluate projects. Which of the following statements is true? a. NPV of Project A > NPV of Project B by $5,230 b. NPV of Project B > NPV of Project A by $5,230 c. NPV of Project A > NPV of Project B by $2,000 d. NPV of Project B > NPV of Project A by $2,000 The net present value of Project B is greater than the NPV of Project A by $5,230. Take a minute and review the solution provided. 50

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**Let’s look at the Home Furniture Company.**

14-51 Least Cost Decisions In decisions where revenues are not directly involved, managers should choose the alternative that has the least total cost from a present value perspective. Let’s look at the Home Furniture Company. In decisions where revenues are not directly involved, managers should choose the alternative that has the least total cost from a present value perspective. 51

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**The company uses a discount rate of 10%.**

14-52 Least Cost Decisions Home Furniture Company is trying to decide whether to overhaul an old delivery truck now or purchase a new one. The company uses a discount rate of 10%. Assume the following facts: Home Furniture Company is trying to decide whether to overhaul an old delivery truck or purchase a new one. The company uses a discount rate of 10 percent. 52

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**Here is information about the trucks . . .**

14-53 Least Cost Decisions Here is information about the trucks . . . The information pertaining to the old and new trucks is as shown. 53

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**Least Cost Decisions 14-54 Part I**

The net present value of buying a new truck is ($32,883). Part II The net present value of overhauling the old truck is ($42,255). Notice that both NPV numbers are negative because there is no revenue involved – this is a least cost decision. 54

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**Home Furniture should purchase the new truck.**

14-55 Least Cost Decisions Home Furniture should purchase the new truck. The net present value in favor of purchasing the new truck is $9,372. 55

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14-56 Quick Check Bay Architects is considering a drafting machine that would cost $100,000, last four years, provide annual cash savings of $10,000, and considerable intangible benefits each year. How large (in cash terms) would the intangible benefits have to be per year to justify investing in the machine if the discount rate is 14%? a. $15,000 b. $90,000 c. $24,317 d. $60,000 Consider the information provided for Bay Architects. How large (in cash terms) would the intangible benefits have to be to justify investing in the drafting machine if the discount rate is 14 percent? 56

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14-57 Quick Check Bay Architects is considering a drafting machine that would cost $100,000, , last four years, provide annual cash savings of $10,000, and considerable intangible benefits each year. How large (in cash terms) would the intangible benefits have to be per year to justify investing in the machine if the discount rate is 14%? a. $15,000 b. $90,000 c. $24,317 d. $60,000 $70,860/2.914 = $24,317 $24,317. Take a minute and review the detailed solution provided. 57

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**Evaluate an investment project that has uncertain cash flows.**

14-58 Learning Objective 3 Evaluate an investment project that has uncertain cash flows. Learning objective number 3 is to evaluate an investment project that has uncertain cash flows. 58

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**Uncertain Cash Flows – An Example**

14-59 Uncertain Cash Flows – An Example Assume that all of the cash flows related to an investment in a supertanker have been estimated, except for its salvage value in 20 years. Using a discount rate of 12%, management has determined that the net present value of all the cash flows, except the salvage value is a negative $1.04 million. Assume that all of the cash flows related to an investment in a supertanker have been estimated, except for its salvage value in 20 years. Using a discount rate of 12 percent, management has determined that the net present value of all the cash flows, except the salvage value is a negative $1.04 million. This negative net present value will be offset by the salvage value of the supertanker. How large would the salvage value need to be to make this investment attractive? How large would the salvage value need to be to make this investment attractive? 59

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**Uncertain Cash Flows – An Example**

14-60 Uncertain Cash Flows – An Example This equation can be used to determine that if the salvage value of the supertanker is at least $10,000,000, the net present value of the investment would be positive and therefore acceptable. The equation shown can be used to determine that if the salvage value of the supertanker is at least $10 million, the net present value of the investment would be positive and therefore acceptable. While the salvage value is not known with certainty, the $10 million figure offers a useful reference point for making the decision. 60

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**Delay the start of a project **

14-61 Real Options Delay the start of a project Expand a project if conditions are favorable Cut losses if conditions are unfavorable The analysis in this chapter has assumed that an investment cannot be postponed and that, once started, nothing can be done to alter the course of the project. The ability to delay the start of a project, to expand it if conditions are favorable, and to cut losses if they are unfavorable adds value to many investments. The value of these real options can be quantified using what is called real options analysis, which is beyond the scope of the book. The ability to consider these real options adds value to many investments. The value of these options can be quantified using what is called real options analysis, which is beyond the scope of the book. 61

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**Rank investment projects in order of preference.**

14-62 Learning Objective 4 Rank investment projects in order of preference. Learning objective number 4 is to rank investment projects in order of preference. 62

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**Preference Decision – The Ranking of Investment Projects**

14-63 Preference Decision – The Ranking of Investment Projects Screening Decisions Preference Decisions Pertain to whether or not some proposed investment is acceptable; these decisions come first. Attempt to rank acceptable alternatives from the most to least appealing. Recall that when considering investment opportunities, managers must make two types of decisions – screening decisions and preference decisions. Screening decisions, which come first, pertain to whether or not some proposed investment is acceptable. Preference decisions, which come after screening decisions, attempt to rank acceptable alternatives from the most to least appealing. Preference decisions need to be made because the number of acceptable investment alternatives usually exceeds the amount of available funds. 63

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**Internal Rate of Return Method**

14-64 Internal Rate of Return Method When using the internal rate of return method to rank competing investment projects, the preference rule is: The higher the internal rate of return, the more desirable the project. When using the internal rate of return method to rank competing investment projects, the preference rule is: the higher the internal rate of return, the more desirable the project. 64

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**Net Present Value Method**

14-65 Net Present Value Method The net present value of one project cannot be directly compared to the net present value of another project unless the investments are equal. The net present value of one project cannot be directly compared to the net present value of another project, unless the investments are equal. 65

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**Ranking Investment Projects**

14-66 Ranking Investment Projects Project Net present value of the project profitability Investment required index = In the case of unequal investments, a profitability index can be computed as the net present value of the project divided by the investment required. Notice three things: The profitability indexes for investments A and B are 0.10 and 0.20, respectively. The higher the profitability index, the more desirable the project. Therefore, investment B is more desirable than investment A. As in this type of situation, the constrained resource is the limited funds available for investment, the profitability index is similar to the contribution margin per unit of the constrained resource as discussed an earlier chapter. The higher the profitability index, the more desirable the project. 66

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**Other Approaches to Capital Budgeting Decisions**

14-67 Other Approaches to Capital Budgeting Decisions Other methods of making capital budgeting decisions include . . . The Payback Method. Simple Rate of Return. This section focuses on two other methods of making capital budgeting decisions – the payback method and the simple rate of return. The payback method will be discussed first followed by the simple rate of return method. 67

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**Determine the payback period for an investment.**

14-68 Learning Objective 5 Determine the payback period for an investment. Learning objective number 5 is to determine the payback period for an investment. 68

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14-69 The Payback Method The payback period is the length of time that it takes for a project to recover its initial cost out of the cash receipts that it generates. When the annual net cash inflow is the same each year, this formula can be used to compute the payback period: The payback method focuses on the payback period, which is the length of time that it takes for a project to recoup its initial cost out of the cash receipts that it generates. When the annual net cash inflow is the same every year, the formula for computing the payback period is the investment required divided by the annual net cash inflow. Payback period = Investment required Annual net cash inflow 69

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**What is the payback period for the espresso bar?**

14-70 The Payback Method Management at The Daily Grind wants to install an espresso bar in its restaurant. The espresso bar: Costs $140,000 and has a 10-year life. Will generate annual net cash inflows of $35,000. Management requires a payback period of 5 years or less on all investments. What is the payback period for the espresso bar? Assume the management of the Daily Grind wants to install an espresso bar in its restaurant. The cost of the espresso bar is $140,000 at it has a ten-year life. The bar will generate annual net cash inflows of $35,000. Management requires a payback period of five years or less. What is the payback period on the espresso bar? 70

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14-71 The Payback Method Investment required Annual net cash inflow Payback period = Payback period = $140,000 $35,000 Payback period = 4.0 years The payback period is 4 years. Therefore, management would choose to invest in the bar. According to the company’s criterion, management would invest in the espresso bar because its payback period is less than 5 years. 71

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**Quick Check Consider the following two investments:**

14-72 Quick Check Consider the following two investments: Project X Project Y Initial investment $100,000 $100,000 Year 1 cash inflow $60,000 $60,000 Year 2 cash inflow $40,000 $35,000 Year cash inflows $0 $25,000 Which project has the shortest payback period? a. Project X b. Project Y c. Cannot be determined Consider the information provided for two investments. Which project has the shortest payback period? 72

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**Quick Check Consider the following two investments:**

14-73 Quick Check Consider the following two investments: Project X Project Y Initial investment $100,000 $100,000 Year 1 cash inflow $60,000 $60,000 Year 2 cash inflow $40,000 $35,000 Year cash inflows $0 $25,000 Which project has the shortest payback period? a. Project X b. Project Y c. Cannot be determined Project X has the shortest payback period of two years. But, the real question is which project do you think is better? It looks like Project Y may be the better of the two investments because it has a much higher cash inflow over the ten year period. Project X has a payback period of 2 years. Project Y has a payback period of slightly more than 2 years. Which project do you think is better? 73

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**Evaluation of the Payback Method**

14-74 Evaluation of the Payback Method Ignores the time value of money. Short-comings of the payback period. Ignores cash flows after the payback period. Criticisms of the payback method include the following. First, a shorter payback period does not always mean that one investment is more desirable than another. This is because the payback method ignores cash flows after the payback period, thus it has no inherent mechanism for highlighting differences in useful life between investments. Second, the payback method does not consider the time value of money. 74

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**Evaluation of the Payback Method**

14-75 Evaluation of the Payback Method Serves as screening tool. Strengths of the payback period. Identifies investments that recoup cash investments quickly. Identifies products that recoup initial investment quickly. Strengths of the payback method include the following. It can serve as a screening tool to help identify which investment proposals are in the “ballpark.” It can aid companies that are “cash poor” in identifying investments that will recoup cash investments quickly. It can help companies that compete in industries where products become obsolete rapidly to identify products that will recoup their initial investment quickly. 75

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**Payback and Uneven Cash Flows**

14-76 Payback and Uneven Cash Flows When the cash flows associated with an investment project change from year to year, the payback formula introduced earlier cannot be used. Instead, the un-recovered investment must be tracked year by year. When the cash flows associated with an investment project change from year to year, the payback formula introduced earlier cannot be used. Instead, the un-recovered investment must be tracked year by year. 1 2 3 4 5 $1,000 $0 $2,000 $500 76

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**Payback and Uneven Cash Flows**

14-77 Payback and Uneven Cash Flows For example, if a project requires an initial investment of $4,000 and provides uneven net cash inflows in years 1-5 as shown, the investment would be fully recovered in year 4. For example, if a project requires an initial investment of $4,000 and provides uneven net cash inflows in years one to five as shown. The investment would be fully recovered in year four. 1 2 3 4 5 $1,000 $0 $2,000 $500 77

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**Compute the simple rate of return for an investment.**

14-78 Learning Objective 6 Compute the simple rate of return for an investment. Learning objective number 6 is to compute the simple rate of return for an investment. 78

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**Simple Rate of Return Method**

14-79 Simple Rate of Return Method Does not focus on cash flows -- rather it focuses on accounting net operating income. The following formula is used to calculate the simple rate of return: Annual incremental net operating income - Simple rate of return = Initial investment* The simple rate of return method (also known as the accounting rate of return or the unadjusted rate of return) does not focus on cash flows, rather it focuses on accounting net operating income. The equation for computing the simple rate of return is as shown. *Should be reduced by any salvage from the sale of the old equipment 79

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**Simple Rate of Return Method**

14-80 Simple Rate of Return Method Management of The Daily Grind wants to install an espresso bar in its restaurant. The espresso bar: Cost $140,000 and has a 10-year life. Will generate incremental revenues of $100,000 and incremental expenses of $65,000 including depreciation. What is the simple rate of return on the investment project? Assume the management of the Daily Grind wants to install an espresso bar in its restaurant. The cost of the espresso bar is $140,000 and it has a ten-year life. The espresso bar will generate incremental revenues of $100,000 and incremental expenses of $65,000 including depreciation. What is the simple rate of return on this project? 80

81
**Simple Rate of Return Method**

14-81 Simple Rate of Return Method Simple rate of return $35,000 $140,000 = = 25% The simple rate of return is 25 percent. 81

82
**Criticism of the Simple Rate of Return**

14-82 Criticism of the Simple Rate of Return Ignores the time value of money. Short-comings of the simple rate of return. The same project may appear desirable in some years and undesirable in other years. Criticisms of the simple rate of return include the following: First, it does not consider the time value of money. Second, the simple rate of return fluctuates from year to year when used to evaluate projects that do not have constant annual incremental revenues and expenses. The same project may appear desirable in some years and undesirable in others. 82

83
**Postaudit of Investment Projects**

14-83 Postaudit of Investment Projects A postaudit is a follow-up after the project has been completed to see whether or not expected results were actually realized. A postaudit is a follow-up after the project has been completed to see whether or not expected results were actually realized. The data used in a postaudit analysis should be actual observed data rather than estimated data. 83

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