Presentation on theme: "in Intermediate and Secondary Classes"— Presentation transcript:
1in Intermediate and Secondary Classes Student Engagementin Intermediate and Secondary Classes
firstname.lastname@example.org 503-295-7749 Anita L. Archer, Ph.D.Author and Consultant(Note: This presentation is based on the research summarized in the following book.)Archer, A., & Hughes, C. (2011). Explicit Instruction: Effective and Efficient Teaching. NY: Guilford Publications.
3Active Participation - Why? Why is it important to constantly elicit responses from students?
4Active Participation - Why? Opportunities to respond related to:Increased academic achievementIncreased on-task behaviorDecreased behavioral challengesCaveatOnly successful responding brings these results
5Active Participation - What? Opportunities to RespondVerbal ResponsesWritten ResponsesAction ResponsesAll Students Respond. When possible useresponse procedures that engage all students
6Active Participation - Think Pair Share How can students respond in a lesson?Verbal ResponsesWritten ResponsesAction Responses
7Active Participation Think Pair Share Have students think and record responses.As students are writing, move around the classroom and write down students’ ideas and their names.PairHave students share their ideas with their partners.Have them record their partner’s best ideas.As students are sharing, continue to record ideas.ShareDisplay the ideas and names on the screen. Use for sharing with the class.
8Verbal Responses - Choral Responses (Use when answers are short & the same.) Students are looking at the teacherAsk a questionPut up your hands to indicate silenceGive thinking timeLower your hands as you say, “Everyone”ORSimply use a vocal command “Everyone”
9Verbal Responses - Choral Responses Students are looking at their own book/paperAsk a questionUse an auditory signal (“Everyone”)Hints for Choral ResponsesGive adequate thinking timeHave students look at you to indicate enough thinking timeIf students don’t respond or blurt out an answer, repeat
10Choral ResponsesWhat are the benefits of structured choral responses?
11Verbal Responses - Partners (Use when the answers are long or different.) Assign partnersPair lower performing students with middle performing studentsGive partners a number (#1 or #2)Sit partners next to each otherUtilize triads when appropriate
12Verbal Responses - Partners Other hints for partnersTeach students how to work together LOOK, LEAN, LISTEN, and WHISPER.Explain that partners are not related to friendship rather to work relationshipsChange the partnerships occasionally (every three to six weeks)When you wish to use cooperative teams, join two partnerships
13Verbal Responses - Partners Provide sentence starterOption 1: Teach students to respond in acomplete sentenceOption 2: Provide a verbal sentence starterOption 3: Provide a written sentence starter----- Meeting Notes (10/21/13 14:47) -----App for responses????
14Verbal Responses- Partners Uses of partners.Say answer to partnerRetell content of lesson using a graphic organizerBrainstorm (Think, Pair, Share)Teach-Pause(Study, Tell, Help, Check)Explain process, strategy, or algorithm using worked problems
15Verbal Responses- Partners StudyGive the students a minute or two to study the material that you have presented. This might entail rereading notes, text material, or a handout.TellTell one of the partners to tell all they remember about the topic. You may wish the other partner to count or tally the ideas.HelpHave the second partner assist by:Asking questionsGiving hintsTelling additional information that they recallCheckWhen both partners have exhausted all information that they can recall, they should check their notes, text material or handout.
16Verbal Responses - Partners Other Uses of partners.Monitor partner to see if directions are followedShare materials with partnersAssist partners during independent workCollect papers, handouts, assignments for absent partnersServe as “study buddies”Provide structured feedback to partner on written products
17Verbal Responses - Partners What are the benefits of usingintentional partners?
18Verbal Responses - Individual Turns Less desirable practices#1. Calling on volunteersGuidelines:Call on volunteers when answer comes from personal experienceDon’t call on volunteers when the answer is a product of instruction or reading. Instead expect that all students could answer your question.#2. Calling on inattentive students
19Verbal Responses - Individual Turns Option #1 - Partner First1. Ask a question2. Give students thinking time3. Have students share answers with partners using sentence starter (stem)5. Call on student to give answer6. Engage students in discussion (See slides on discussion)
20Verbal Responses - Individual Turns Option #2 - Question First- Ask a question - Raise your hands to indicate silence - Give thinking time - Call on a student
21Verbal Responses- Individual Turns Procedures for calling on students to ensure that all students are involved Procedure #1 - Call on students in different parts of room.Procedure #2 - Write names on cards or sticks. Draw a name.Procedure #3 - Use an ipad or iphone app such as Teacher’s Pick, Stick Pick, or Pick Me! to randomly select students.Procedure #3 - Use two decks of playing cards. Tape cards from one deck to desks. Pull a card from the other deck and call on student.
22Verbal Responses -Individual Responses Option #3 - Whip Around or PassThis strategy is best used when there are many possible answers to a question.Ask the question.Give students thinking time.Start at any location in the room. Have students quickly give answers going up and down the rows without commenting. Students are allowed to pass if they do not have a response or someone has already shared the same idea.Do this for word choice-other words for good
23Verbal Responses - Discussion Teach students the behaviors of discussion.Introduce a task prior to discussion.Present a evidence-based question, taking students INTO the text. Have them think about the answer or write down the answer.Have students share with their partners.Have students share with the class.Provide language prompts for discussion.Keep going then ask for question examples
24Verbal Responses - Discussion Provide sentence starters for discussion. Examples:DisagreeingI disagree with ________ because ____________.I disagree with ________ I think ______________.AgreeingI agree with ____________ because_____________.I agree with ___________ and I also think ____________.
25Verbal Responses - Discussion Discussion LanguageAgreeingMy idea is similar to __________ idea. I think____________My ideas extend/build on/expand on _________________I agree with ___________ and want to add_______________DisagreeingI don’t agree with __________ because ________________I have a different perspective from _______. I think________My views are different from ____________. I believe___________
26Verbal Responses - Discussion Discussion languageClarifyingWill you please explain ___________________.When you stated _________, what did you mean?Could you please clarify your idea for me.ParaphrasingSo you believe that _____________________________What I hear you saying is ________________________
27Written Responses Write ON Write THIS Paper - Answers Graph paper - Warm-up (Do Now)Computers - Exit TicketSmart Board - Personal NotesElectronic tablets - Partial NotesWhite boards - Quick WritesResponse slates - Journal Entries- Post - its - Writing Frames- Posters - Summaries- Graphic Organizers- Flash Cards
28Written Responses 1. Give clear directions 2. If necessary, model desired response3. Gauge the length of the written response to avoid “voids”.Make the responses fairly short ORMake the response “eternal”4. Circulate and monitor5. Give feedbackPraise, Encouragement, Correct
29Response Slates (White Boards) Written ResponsesResponse Slates (White Boards)Give a directiveHave students write answers on individual whiteboards, slates, chalkboards, electric tablets, ipadsProvide adequate response timeHave students display their slatesGive feedback to students.
30Written Responses Response cards Have students write possible responses on cards or paper or provide them with prepared cardsExamples:Generic responses: Yes, No; Agree, Disagree; True, False; A, B, C, DPunctuation Marks: . ! ? , “ “ : ;Vocabulary Terms: perimeter, areaVocabulary Terms: elude, intention, reluctantAsk a questionHave students select best responseAsk students to hold up response cardCarefully monitor responses and provide feedbackClickers are the electronic equivalent of response cardsFrom character point of view—yes and no agree and disagree
31Action Responses Act out Students act out vocabulary term, concept, or processSimulationsStudents participate in a simulationUnited Nations, mock trial, stock market
32Action Responses Gestures Students use gestures to indicate answer or to facilitate recall of processFacial ExpressionsExample: This word is despondent. When you feel very low from the loss of hope, you feel despondent. If you have lost all hope and feel very low, you are __________________. If you lost your job, all of your savings, and your home, you would feel_____________. Show me with your body and face, how would you look if you felt despondent.
33Action responses Hand signals. Level of understanding. Students place their hand to indicate level of understanding (high-forehead, OK-neck, low-abdomen) or show 0 to 5 with fingers.ORWrite items on screen and number them.Language Arts: 1. elude intention 3. reluctantScience: 1. Shield 2. Composite 3. Cinder coneAsk a question. Have students form answers (e.g., three fingers to indicate item #3) on their desk.When adequate thinking time has been given, have students hold up their hands showing responses.
35Passage Reading Procedures What are some disadvantages of “round-robin reading” when the group size is large?
36Passage Reading - Silent Reading Augmented Silent ReadingPose pre- reading questionTell students to read a certain amount and to reread material if they finish earlyCirculate and monitor students’ reading Have individuals whisper-read to youPose post- reading question
37Passage Reading - Choral Reading Read selection with your studentsRead at a moderate rateTell your students, “Keep your voice with mine” (You may wish to have the students pre-read the material silently before choral reading.)
38Passage Reading - Cloze Reading Read selectionPause on “meaningful” wordsHave students read the deleted wordsExcellent practice for reading initial part of a chapter or when you need to read something quickly
39Passage Reading - Individual Turns Use with small groupsCall on an individual studentCall on students in random orderVary the amount of material readIf used with large group,Assign paragraphs for preview and practice ORUtilize the me or we strategy. When called on, student has the option of saying “we” and asking everyone to join in reading.
40Passage Reading - Partners Partner ReadingAssign each student a partnerReader whisper-reads to partnerNarrative - Partners alternate by sentence, page, or timeInformational text - Partners alternate by the paragraph (Read - Stop - Respond).Coach corrects errors. Ask - Can you figure out this word? Tell - This word is _____. What word? Reread the sentence.
41Passage Reading - Partners Alternatives to support lowest readersOption #1 Lowest reader placed on a triad and reads with another studentOption #3 Partners allowed to say “me” or “we”Option #4 Higher reader reads materialLower reader in partnership reads same material