Presentation on theme: "»Congress of Vienna and the Concert of Europe (1814) »Lingering animosities due to competing imperial goals over centuries 1.Conflicting interests of."— Presentation transcript:
»Congress of Vienna and the Concert of Europe (1814) »Lingering animosities due to competing imperial goals over centuries 1.Conflicting interests of imperialist, autocratic European powers 1.most of which are ruled by MONARCHS 2.Pre-existing unrest in Europe 1.threats to the “establishment” AND tradition 3.Industrialization (mass production) 4.Arms Race (mass produced, modern, technologically advanced weaponry) 5.Militarism (armies had pre-existing strategies against enemies) 6.The Alliance system 1.Triple Alliance (Germany, AH and Italy) vs. Triple Entente (GB, Russia and France) 7.Ultra-Nationalism and propaganda »Overall INSTABILITY in Europe »When all ingredients are mixed, a “SPARK” will ignite a war.
The Major Powers of Europe: 1.United Kingdom (British Empire) 2.German Realm (Empire of Germany) 3.Empire of Russia (Eurasian empire) 4.Republic of France (Asian and African colonies) 5.Empire of Austria-Hungary (Habsburg Empire) ˃Central European Empire 6.Ottoman Empire (Southeastern Europe and Middle East) 7.Kingdom of Serbia (Slavic nation threatened A-H)
Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany Czar Nicholas of RussiaKing George V of UK
» Two were first cousins and grandchildren of Queen Victoria of England. ˃Queen Victoria's son Edward VII was King George V's father, making him Victoria’s grandson. ˃Queen Victoria's daughter Victoria, was Kaiser Wilhelm's mother, making him Victoria’s grandson. » Queen Victoria's daughter Alice was the mother of Alexandra, wife of Czar Nicolas II, making him “related” by marriage. ˃Nicholas II, himself, was not a descendant of Queen Victoria, however both of them (Nicholas II and Queen Victoria) were several generations descended from King George II of England, which made him a distant cousin of George and Wilhelm. » Kaiser Wilhelm & Czar Nicholas had common ancestor in Paul I of Russia. » Additionally, George V of England and Czar Nicholas II of Russia were first cousins through their mothers. George's mother, Alexandra of Denmark, and Nicholas' mother, Dagmar of Denmark, were sisters. » You will NOT be tested on any of this….
» A volatile, diverse European empire that included many different ethnic and religious groups: ˃Austrian, Slovak, Romanian, Croat, Italian, Hungarian, Polish, Albanian, Czech, Serb, Bosnian Serbs, Slovene, Greek ˃Roman Catholic, Muslim, Eastern Orthodox Christian, Jewish » Ruled by King Franz Josef ˃(no relation to the other guys) » His nephew, Archduke Franz Ferdinand was the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary. » He supported the “Triple Monarchy” idea; this would add Serbia to Austria-Hungary and would give Serbia some autonomy. » 7,800,000 men in army
» President Raymond Poincare » one of Europe’s largest militaries ˃ 8,400,000 men in army » Underfunded, lacked modern weapons. » Its greatest enemy: Germany ˃ (Franco-Prussian War of 1870; France lost the war and the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine which are on the German border) » Empire in decline by 1913 » Vulnerable, but allied with Russia since 1894 and Britain since 1904
» Ruler Sultan Mohammed V » Empire stretched from the Middle East/Arabian peninsula, through Turkey and into Southeastern Europe » Empire was in its decline due to ethnic revolt against the Turk leadership » Muslim influence spread into Southeastern Europe which added to the religious differences of the region » Empire was ethnically and religiously diverse. » 2.9 million men in army
» Serbs culturally linked to Russia – both are Slavic » The Pan-Slav Movement: ˃ A political movement that was designed to unite the Slavic people of the region into one greater Slavic nation. » Their vision: A Slavic Empire-no ‘Triple Monarchy’ ˃ South Slavia or Yugoslavia » Bosnia (ethnic Slavs): Fully absorbed into Austria- Hungary in 1913 ˃ Croats, Slovenes, and Serbs live in Bosnia + all are Slavic ˃ Bosnia sought assimilation into Serbia ˃ Its obstacle: Austria-Hungary » The Black Hand » The Black Hand - Nationalist group that sought to encourage Austria-Hungary to liberate ethnic Slavs living in A-H » Widespread Slavic unrest in the region attributed to Serbia ’s quest for a Slavic empire
» Democracy/Marxism vs. Monarchy/Capitalism ˃ New order vs. Old, traditional order » Imperialism = increased wealth & prestige = MILITARY growth to defend interests » Ultra-Nationalism within each European nation due to national prestige and pride ˃ Created animosities between nations ˃ Propaganda intensified these animosities » Ethnic minorities within empires = potential CIVIL WARS ˃ HABSBURGS vs. ETHNIC MINORITIES (mostly Slavic) + ethnic and religious diversity made A-H very unstable. ˃ Ethnic minorities supported by nations other than the nation they lived in. + Ethnic Slavs within Austria-Hungary sought support from Russia » Ancient alliances – Ancient enemies ˃ Alliances, combined with “the cousins”, created uncertainty and instability » Alsace-Lorraine: 2 French provinces lost to Germany after the Franco-Prussian War. ˃ unresolved conflict between the two European powers. » Poland: Ethnic Polish people without a nation; live in parts of 3 different nations; desire autonomy. » Lack of perspective; nations overestimated themselves, underestimated their opponents
» Modern, rapid industrialization in Europe allowed nations to mass produce any product imaginable. » Nations “modernized” their militaries as a result.
» Franco-Prussian War of 1870 ˃Alsace-Lorraine » Before 1900, Germany & France had created strategies to invade each other: » Germany: Schlieffen Plan (1905) – red arrow above » France: Plan 17 (1898 to 1913) – blue arrow above » Armies were huge, well trained and supplied with modern weaponry. ˃Except for France, of course… “courage and the bayonet” » UK and Germany in competition to have the largest, most powerful navy » Nations that are prepared for war and usually go to war.. Nations that are prepared for war and usually go to war..
»The Triple Alliance-1882 ˃ Italy, Germany, Austria-Hungary ˃ Known as “The Central Powers” ˃ Italy leaves in 1914 ˃ Ottoman Empire joins in 1914 »The Triple Entente-1904 ˃ France, Russia and Britain ˃ Known as “The Allies” ˃ Italy joins in 1915 »The Balkan League-1911 ˃ Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria, Albania and Montenegro. ˃ Goals: (1) protection from Ottoman and A-H Empires and (2) create a larger nation of South Slavia (Yugoslavia) ˃ This is an alliance of mostly SLAVIC peoples (Russians are also Slavic)
»The Bottom Line ˃ Serbians/Slavs hated Austria-Hungary + And vice-verse… ˃ Pan-Slav Movement vs. Triple Monarchy… ˃ Russians supported the Pan-Slav movement, ˃ French and Germans hated each other, ˃ Germans and Austrians were ethnically and culturally similar AND were allies, ˃ Russia, UK and France were allies and Germany, A- H and Italy in competing alliance: + Czar, Kaiser and King George were cousins who may be asked to resolve conflict before a disaster occurs. + Kaiser/Germany NOT allied with UK and Russia
» A healthy dose of pre-existing competition, animosity, alliances and treaties between European imperialists… » A dash of threats to empires and MONARCHIES… » A generous pinch of all-natural, organic, fortified NATIONALISM combined with MILITARISM… » Several parts PROGAGANDA (for self-promotion and to degrade your enemies)… » …now the dish is totally de-stabilized… » Find a way to “spark” the fire…and… » The “WAR” will be ready soon!
» June 28, 1914: ˃ Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary… ˃ by Gavrilo Princip, a Serb member of the Black Hand ˃ In Sarajevo, part of Austria-Hungary and former capital of Bosnia » Even though Serbia was not directly responsible for the assassinaiton of the Arch-Duke… ˃ Princip & the Black Hand not blamed…Serbia is.