Presentation on theme: "QURANIC GRAMMAR AS-SARF “Morphology of the words” Lesson 10 Lessons from the book MABADE” ALA’RABIYAH – basics of Arabic Grammar RASHEED SHARTOONI Compiled."— Presentation transcript:
QURANIC GRAMMAR AS-SARF “Morphology of the words” Lesson 10 Lessons from the book MABADE” ALA’RABIYAH – basics of Arabic Grammar RASHEED SHARTOONI Compiled by: Sheikh Safdar Razi Ali
13- Patterns of derived nouns (Al Ism Mushtaq) There are 7 Patterns in Nouns that we will discuss: 1Subject Noun FAAE’L كاتب = فاعل 2Object Noun MAFU’OOL مكتوب = مفعول 3Siffah Mushabihah (Description similar to Subject), Extensive Emphasis AFA’L اسود = افعل 4Superlative Noun AFA’LA MIN اكبرمن = افعل من 5Amplifying noun FA’AAL الرحمن = فعّال 6Time Noun MAFE’L مغرب = مفعل 7Place Noun MAFA’L مركز = مفعل 8Tool Noun MEFA’AAL منشار = مفعال
الصِفَة المُشَبَّهة similar to subject noun صِفَة المُشَبَّهة : اسم فاعل cannot be derived from some verbs like the intransitive ( الفعِلُ الازم ) verbs. In such a case Siff-Al- Moshabaha is derived from it. صِفَة المُشَبَّهة does not indicate the doer of an action but indicates a stable description such as وَلَدٌ حَاسِنٌ ( اسم فاعل ) beautifying boy and وَلَدٌ حَسَنٌ (a beautiful boy) ( صِفَة المُشَبَّهة ) It is called MOSHABAHA المُشَبَّهة because it is not اسم فاعل (subject noun) but acts like it grammatically, so it is similar ( المُشَبَّهة ) to اسم فاعل
Forms of الصِفَة المُشَبَّهة – 4 lettered form similar to اسم فاعل such as اِعتدَلَ يَعتَدِلُ مُعتَدِل – Most of the tri-lettered verbs has commonly known form (SOMAA’EYA) such as كرِيم on the scale of فعِيل – Except for the ones which indicate a color such as اَسوَد (black) and defect such as اَعمىَ (blind) or a character such as اَكرَم (generous). For these are formed on the scale of اَفعَل Four-Lettered Forms AF’AL آفعَل (Male), FA’LAA’A فَعلَاء (Female) – AHMAR اَحمَر (Male), HAMRAA’A حَمرَاءُ (Female) = Red FA’LAAN فَعلَان (Male), FA’LAA فَعلَى (Female) – JOWA’AAN جَوعَان (Male), JOW’AA جَوعَى (Female) = Hungry – Further the standard forms are mentioned in coming slides.
Intransitive form 1: فَعِلَ has three forms If the AYN had a KASRA then the الصِفَة المُشَبَّهة will be as follows: Tri letter form: FAE’LA فَعِلَ FAE’LUN فَعِلٌ –فَرِحَ (FARIHA) فَرِح ٌ (FARIHON) - Happy
Patterns – Seegah mubaalagah المُبَالِغَه الصِيغَة Amplification in Description Seegah Mubaalagha الصِيغَة المُبَالِغَه is used to emphasize, amplify and magnify the emphasis of a noun
Forms of amplified nouns from the triliteral verbs: there is no standard forms but (SOMAA’EYA). The most famous forms are: A. جَبَّار : فَعَّال ( (giant) B. عَلّامة : فَعَّالة ((high scholar) C. مِفضال : مِفعال ((excellent) D. مِسکين : مِفعيل ((destitute) E. صِدِّيق : فِعِّيل ((very truthful) F. حَذِر : فَعِل ((very cautious) G. رَحيم : فعيل ((very merciful) (form is used as a SIFFA MOSHABAHA to indicate the amplification of اسم فاعل as well. In this example it is an amplification of راحِمٌ RAAHIM) H. کَذوب : فَعول ((big liar) (form is used to indicate a meaning similar to اسم مفعول such as the amplification of مُرسَل is رَسول
Rule of فعيل – رحيم in both cases ( فاعل and مَفعول ) The rule that applies to the form فعيل (the description) and the noun that it describes is different depending on its meaning: A. If فعيل has the meaning of فاعل (subject) then it follows the noun it describes in gender. For example: هذا شَفيقٌ و هذه شَفيقةٌ this male compassionate person and this female compassionate person. B. If it has the meaning of an objective مَفعول compliment it remains masculine even if the noun it is describing is feminine. For example: ( جاءَ رجلٌ جَريحٌ an injured man came) and جائت امرأةٌ جَريحٌ )an injured woman came). This is only the case if the described word is mentioned, if it is implied the adjective must follow the described word in gender. For example: جاءَ جَريحٌ و جَريحَةٌ the injured [man] and the injured [woman] came).
Rule of فَعُول – رسول in both cases ( فاعل and مَفعول ) If the form فَعُول describes a noun that has the meaning of an objective مَفعول ‘compliment it follows the noun’s gender. For example: هذارَسول this male messenger and رَسولَة هذه this female messenger). B. If it has the meaning of subject فاعل then it remains masculine even if the noun it is describing is feminine. For example: جاءَ الأب ُالحنونُ (the loving father came) and جائتَ الأُمُّ الحنونُ the loving mother came). This is only the case if the described word is mentioned, if it is implied the adjective must follow the described word in gender. For example: جاءَ الحنونُ و الحنونَةُ the loving [father] and the loving [mother] came.
Grammar of seegah mubaalagah الصِيغَة المُبَالِغَه الصِغَة المُبَالِغَه can replace a verb if two conditions are present: The الصِيغَة المُبَالِغَه is not: Articulated with Al اَل Depends on Mobtada (Nominal Subject, Negation or interrogation)