Safety Driven Performance Conference 2013 Venue safety information Safety overview Location of emergency exists
Safety Driven Performance Conference 2013 Overview Review plant reliability goals IOW and RBI basics Benefits of an IOW program Supplementing RBI program with IOWs Examples in refinery application Q & A
Safety Driven Performance Conference 2013 Plant Reliability Goals Ensure equipment performs it’s required functions for a specific time period Maximize equipment availability Optimize maintenance Reduce risk and potential for leak/rupture Provide early recognition of equipment risks due to process deviations In short - No surprises!
Safety Driven Performance Conference 2013 Risk Based Inspection - RBI Uses past operating conditions and inspection data to make future predictions Captures risk at a snap shot in time What happens when process conditions change?
Safety Driven Performance Conference 2013 Existing Industry Standards Importance of monitoring operating conditions API RP 580 Section 6.4 “It may be worthwhile to monitor key process parameters to determine whether operations are maintained within boundaries” API 510 Section 6.2 “The likelihood of failure assessment should be repeated each time equipment or process changes are made” API 584 – Best practices, guidelines for IOWs Second Draft in review
Safety Driven Performance Conference 2013 Process & Operational Impact Processes are not always stable Feedstock variations Upsets When changes to operating conditions affect key process variables New damage mechanisms may be introduced Corrosion rates may accelerate These excursions are typically unaccounted and their impact not considered
Safety Driven Performance Conference 2013 IOW Concepts IOWs are allowable operating limits for a process variable Established to manage corrosion and other damage mechanisms Different from SOL, Alarms for Pressure integrity (MAWP etc.) Requires a response within established timeframes if limit is exceeded Failure to bring the operating condition within the IOW limit within established timeframe will result in damage to the equipment outside of acceptable limits
Safety Driven Performance Conference 2013 Early failure Expected Remaining Life IOW – Standard High IOW – Critical High / SOL Acceptable Risk Level Expected Risk Profile Time (years) Remaining Life (years) Risk Temperature Actual Remaining Life Breached IOW level for 3 months An Illustration
Safety Driven Performance Conference 2013 Benefits of an IOW Program Proactive approach to managing reliability and risk Real time notification of an increased risk Allows for timely intervention when process conditions change Extends operating life of an asset Enhances safety Cost savings - reduced inspection costs and capital expenditures
Safety Driven Performance Conference 2013 IOW Implementation Team Multidisciplinary team of SME’s Corrosion Engineer / specialist Process Engineer Reliability Engineer / RBI specialists Operations personnel Plant inspector Others – chemical treatment vendor, license technology specialists
Safety Driven Performance Conference 2013 Steps in Establishing an IOW Program Collect and review data Create corrosion loops or circuits Corrosion study Damage mechanism review Establish IOW Limits Implement IOW program Identify actions and responsibilities Process historian and Alarm configuration Collect and Review Data Create Corrosion Circuits / Loops Corrosion Study and IOW Limits Implement IOW Program
Safety Driven Performance Conference 2013 Create Corrosion Loops / Circuits Areas that have similar operating conditions, corrosion mechanisms, and materials
Safety Driven Performance Conference 2013 Implement the IOW Program Recommend Standard, Critical, and Informational limits Select response times for each IOW limit based on IOW Risk Matrix Other Considerations Review IOW limits in conjunction with operating limits already established for safety (e.g. via HAZOP) and product quality before implementing Consider instrumentation currently in place and sampling points Client participation and commitment is essential
Safety Driven Performance Conference 2013 Example - IOW for Creep Damage in Heater Tubes Heater coils not susceptible to creep under normal conditions Flame instabilities can create locally hot areas Fouling can result in greatly reduced heat transfer Result – temperatures exceeding creep threshold temperature
Safety Driven Performance Conference 2013 Creep Damage in 321 SS Heater Tubes Normal TMT T = 800 °F Lower limit for creep T = 1000 °F (API 579) Design temperature T=1050 °F 2000 hour (12 week) creep life T = 1210 °F (API 579 Omega) Rapid deterioration T >1450 °F (API 530)
Safety Driven Performance Conference 2013 Another example of IOWs – much closer to the heart! High Blood Pressure 33.6% of US adults 20 years of age have hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is nearly equal between men and women. Approximately 78% are aware of their condition, 68% are using antihypertensive medication, and only 44% of those treated had their hypertension controlled. Controllable variables Obesity /Sedentary lifestyle Tobacco / Alcohol abuse Excess dietary sodium Excessive alcohol intake Stress Cholesterol
Safety Driven Performance Conference 2013 An “RBI Approach” + IOWs for Healthcare! Traditional RBI Approach Assess individuals aged above 40 Focus on family and medical history Treat symptoms with medications Incorporating IOWs Yearly annual checkups for all age groups Preventive care education – focus on monitoring Physical activity Eating habits Stress Cholesterol levels Smoking / Alcohol abuse
Safety Driven Performance Conference 2013 IOW Limits - Other Considerations Is the limit practical – are operators constantly going to be responding to alarms? Balance between constantly reacting to alarms and having enough response time to prevent damage Consider which instruments or controls are already in place that could be used for monitoring Consider using information limits that do not generate operator alarms but capture and document a deviation
Safety Driven Performance Conference 2013 Summary IOWs enhance traditional RBI programs by providing a proactive approach to managing reliability and risk Implementing an IOW program can provide better control and more confidence in managing the damage mechanisms Permits alternative feedstock/operations considerations by more clearly understanding the operating limits Can lead to improved facility safety and cost savings in terms of inspections and capital expenditures
Safety Driven Performance Conference 2013 Thank you – Questions?