Presentation on theme: "Chapter One Thinking Critically in the Social Sciences."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter One Thinking Critically in the Social Sciences
History of Psychology Wilhelm Wundt (1879) Wilhelm Wundt G. Stanley Hall (1883) G. Stanley Hall Hermann Ebbinghaus (1885) Hermann Ebbinghaus William James (1890) William James Edward Thorndike (1898) Edward Thorndike Sigmund Freud (1900) Sigmund Freud Alfred Binet (1905) Alfred Binet Ivan Pavlov (1906) Ivan Pavlov John Watson (1913) John Watson B.F. Skinner (1960) B.F. Skinner
Subfields of Psychology Basic Research Applied Research –I/O, Social, Personality Clinical Counseling Psychiatry
Why Science? Isn’t Psychology the study of stuff that we already know? –Hindsight Bias Example Systematic and Replicable –Amazing RandiAmazing Randi Critical Thinking Critical Thinking –Theory vs. Law
Scientific Method Form a Question –Operational Definitions Develop a hypothesis Carry out Experiment Analyze Results Draw Conclusions Ask New Questions
Types of Research The Case Study –Uses one single case to draw generalizations Genie The Survey –If you want to know just ask False consensus effect Population & Sampling Good Subject Bias
Long Term Studies Longitudinal Select one group of subjects and follow them over a period of time Cross-sectional Select one group of subjects at the various age levels that you want to study and conduct the study on them Flynn Effect Flynn Effect
More Research Naturalistic Observation –Jane GoodallJane Goodall Laboratory Experiment –Dependent Variable vs. Independent Variable –Single Blind vs. Double Blind –Placebo Effect
Lies, Damned Lies and... Statistics –Correlation Correlation is not causation Measures of Central Tendency Normal Curve Normal Curve –Area under the curveArea under the curve Central Tendency –Mean, Median, Mode Standard Deviation –Range Statistical Significance Reliability vs. Validity
Ethics in the Lab Animal Studies –Should we injure animals? How much? When? Human Studies –Should we mislead humans? How much? When?
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