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Chapter One Thinking Critically in the Social Sciences.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter One Thinking Critically in the Social Sciences."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter One Thinking Critically in the Social Sciences

2 History of Psychology  Wilhelm Wundt (1879) Wilhelm Wundt  G. Stanley Hall (1883) G. Stanley Hall  Hermann Ebbinghaus (1885) Hermann Ebbinghaus  William James (1890) William James  Edward Thorndike (1898) Edward Thorndike  Sigmund Freud (1900) Sigmund Freud  Alfred Binet (1905) Alfred Binet  Ivan Pavlov (1906) Ivan Pavlov  John Watson (1913) John Watson  B.F. Skinner (1960) B.F. Skinner

3 Perspectives of Psychology  Neuroscience  Evolutionary  Behavior Genetics  Psychodynamic  Behavioral  Cognitive  Humanistic  Social-Cultural

4 Subfields of Psychology  Basic Research  Applied Research –I/O, Social, Personality  Clinical  Counseling  Psychiatry

5 Why Science?  Isn’t Psychology the study of stuff that we already know? –Hindsight Bias  Example  Systematic and Replicable –Amazing RandiAmazing Randi  Critical Thinking Critical Thinking –Theory vs. Law

6 Scientific Method  Form a Question –Operational Definitions  Develop a hypothesis  Carry out Experiment  Analyze Results  Draw Conclusions  Ask New Questions

7 Types of Research  The Case Study –Uses one single case to draw generalizations  Genie  The Survey –If you want to know just ask  False consensus effect  Population & Sampling  Good Subject Bias

8 Long Term Studies  Longitudinal  Select one group of subjects and follow them over a period of time  Cross-sectional  Select one group of subjects at the various age levels that you want to study and conduct the study on them  Flynn Effect Flynn Effect

9 More Research  Naturalistic Observation –Jane GoodallJane Goodall  Laboratory Experiment –Dependent Variable vs. Independent Variable –Single Blind vs. Double Blind –Placebo Effect

10 Lies, Damned Lies and...  Statistics –Correlation  Correlation is not causation  Measures of Central Tendency  Normal Curve Normal Curve –Area under the curveArea under the curve  Central Tendency –Mean, Median, Mode  Standard Deviation –Range  Statistical Significance  Reliability vs. Validity

11 Ethics in the Lab  Animal Studies –Should we injure animals?  How much?  When?  Human Studies –Should we mislead humans?  How much?  When?

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