2TRAINING MATERIALS Training Power Point – content overview Training Handout – content informationSample Tournament – sample problems with keyEvent Supervisor Guide – prep tips, setup needs, and scoring tipsInternet Resources & Training Materials – on the Science Olympiad website at under Event InformationA Biology-Earth Science CD, an Green Generations CD, as well as the Division B and Division C Test Packets are available from SO store at
3EVENT COMPONENTS Green Generation Content – 2015 Part 1 – General Ecological Principles (1/3)Part 2 – Ecological Issues (1/3)Part 3 – Solutions (1/3)Process skills in data, graph and diagram analysisEvent parameters – check the event parameters in the rules for resources allowed.
4Part 1: Review of the General Principles of Ecology A. General Principles of Ecology - food webs and trophic pyramids, nutrient cycling, community interactions, population dynamics, species diversity and indicator species with life history strategies (age structure, survival curves, life tables, succession, R and K strategies for division C onlyB. Overview of Aquatic Environments – freshwater, estuaries, marine (2015)C. Overview of Terrestrial Environments – forests, grasslands, deserts (2016)
5Part 2: Problems from Human Impact on Environment A. Aquatic Environment Issues –Water pollution, Ocean Dead Zones, Water Diversion, Overfishing (2015)B. Air Quality Issues – Acid rain, Air Pollution, Nuclear Pollution (2015)C. Climate Change Issues – Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Depletion (2015)D. Terrestrial Environment Issues – Desertification, Deforestation, Soil pollution, Waste Disposal, Mining (2016)E. Population Growth Issues – Habitat Destruction, Farming Practices, Fertilizers & Pesticides (2016)
6Part 3: Solutions to Reversing /Reducing Harmful Effects Legislation and Economic Opportunity for Solving Problems (Div. C) & 2016Sustainability Strategies – Aquatic Ecosystems 2015C. Bioremediation Strategies 2015D. Sustainability Strategies - Terrestrial Ecosystems 2016E. Nonrenewable, Renewable Energy, and Alternate Energy Sources 2016F. Waste Management 2016
7Part I: Review of General Ecology ECOLOGY – how organisms interact with one another and with their environmentENVIRONMENT – living and non-living componentsABIOTIC – non-living component or physical factors as soil, rainfall, sunlight, temperaturesBIOTIC – living component are other organisms.
8ECOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION INDIVIDUAL – individual organismsPOPULATION – organisms of same species in same area (biotic factors)COMMUNITY – several populations in same area (biotic factors)ECOSYSTEM – community plus abiotic factorsBIOSPHERE – all ecosystems on earth
9ECOLOGY OF INDIVIDUALS Homeostasis – delicate balanceComponentsPhysiological EcologyTemperature and Water BalanceLight and Biological CyclesPhysiological Ecology and Conservation
10ECOLOGY OF POPULATIONS Properties of populationsPatterns of distribution and densityIntraspecific competitionPopulation dynamicsGrowth and regulationAltering population growthHuman impact
12Survival CurvesSurvivorship is the percentage of remaining survivors of a population over time; usually shown graphically. Type I survivorship curve: most individuals live out their life span and die of old age (e.g., humans). Type II survivorship curve: individuals die at a constant rate (e.g., birds, rodents, and perennial plants). Type III survivorship curve: most individuals die early in life (e.g., fishes, invertebrates, and plants).
13ECOLOGY OF COMMUNITIES Closed vs. Open communitiesClosed – sharp boundariesOpen – Lack boundariesSpecies abundance and diversityTrophic Structure of CommunitiesFood chainsFood webTrophic pyramid
14INTERACTIONS AMONG SPECIES Interspecific competitionPredationExploitationSymbiosis
15Types of Species Interactions Neutral – two species do not interactMutualism – both benefitCommensalism – one benefits, other neutralParasitism – one benefits, one harmedbut not killedPredation – one benefits, other killed
17Food Chain Producer 1st order Consumer or Herbivore rose plant aphids beetle chameleon hawkProducer1st order Consumer or Herbivore2nd order Consumer or 1st order Carnivore3rd order Consumer or 2nd order Carnivore4th order Consumer or 3rd order CarnivoreDecomposers – consume dead and decaying matter
19ECOLOGY OF ECOSYSTEMS Energy Flow Community Succession and Stability Energy Flow PyramidsBio-mass PyramidsCommunity Succession and StabilityNutrient Recycling – nutrient cycles
20Energy vs Nutrient Nutrients – cyclic (Biogeochemical Cycles) Energy flow – one way
21Ecologic PyramidsEcological pyramid - a graph representing trophic level numbers within an ecosystem. The primary producer level is at the base of the pyramid with the consumer levels above.Numbers pyramid - compares the number of individuals in each trophic level.Biomass pyramid - compares the total dry weight of the organisms in each trophic level.Energy pyramid - compares the total amount of energy available in each trophic level. This energy is usually measured in kilocalories.
30Pollution Harmful materials entering the environment Point source pollution – from a clearly identifiale sourceNonpoint pollution comes from many different sources.Four main categories – industrial, residential, commercial, and environmental
31PART 2 – PROBLEMSProblems resulting from human impacts on the quality of our environmentA. Aquatic Environment Issues –Water pollution, Ocean Dead Zones, Water Diversion, Overfishing (2015)B. Air Quality Issues – Acid rain, Air Pollution, Nuclear Pollution (2015)C. Climate Change Issues – Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Depletion (2015)D. Terrestrial Environment Issues – Desertification, Deforestation, Soil pollution, Waste Disposal, Mining (2016)E. Population Growth Issues – Habitat Destruction, Farming Practices, Fertilizers & Pesticides (2016)
32Sources of pollutionorganic pollution – decomposition of living organisms and their bi-productsinorganic pollution – dissolved and suspended solids as silt, salts, and mineralstoxic pollution – heavy medals and other chemical compounds that are lethal to organismsthermal pollution – waste heat from industrial and power generation processesradiation pollution - radioactive materials
33Environmental Pollution Air PollutionWater PollutionSoil PollutionNoise PollutionRadioactive PollutionThermal PollutionLight Pollution
34Aquatic Environmental Issues (2015) Water pollutionEutrophicationOcean Dead ZonesThermal PollutionWater DiversionOverfishing
37EutrophicationEutrophication – bodies of water becomes enriched with nutrients. This can be a problem in marine habitats such as lakes as it can cause algal blooms.run-off from fertilizers, into nearby water causing an increase in nutrient levels.It causes phytoplankton to grow and reproduce more rapidly, resulting in algal blooms.This bloom of algae disrupts normal ecosystem functioning and causes many problems.The algae may use up all the oxygen in the water, leaving none for other marine life. This results in the death of many aquatic organisms such as fish, which need the oxygen in the water to live.The bloom of algae may also block sunlight from photosynthetic marine plants under the water surface.Some algae even produce toxins that are harmful to higher forms of life. This can cause problems along the food chain and affect any animal that feeds on them.
38Ocean Dead ZonesEutrophication is magnified as rivers lead into larger rivers and eventually into the ocean – as the Mississippi River network. This leads to ocean dead zones.
39Spills or Dumping in Oceans Chemical spills and dumping of waste in the oceans or near coral reefs and ocean shelf areas causes major environmental problems.BP Oil Rig Explosion 2010
40Thermal Pollution & Rising Ocean Temperatures Change in the water temperatures of lakes, rivers, and oceans caused by made-man industries or practicesWater as coolant is warmed returned & to body of waterOcean warming from climate changesCoral Bleaching
41Water Diversion Dams are a major factor in water diversion. Dams are built along rivers to produce reservoirs.This affects the ecology of the river and the surrounding environment including Habitat Loss, Habitat Fragmentation, and Loss of BiodiversityThe Colorado River is a good example.
42OverfishingFish catch has risen from 20 million tons/year to over 90 million tons / yearWorld Fish Catch
46Fukushima Daiichi Disaster -2011 Nuclear PollutionNuclear pollution is pollution that is radioactive. Fallout can lead to radiation sickness and death.Nuclear fallout can destroy environmental features and animal life.Fukushima Daiichi Disaster -2011
47Climate Change IssuesGreenhouse Effect - warming that results when the atmosphere traps heat radiating from Earth toward space.Ozone Depletion - ozone layer is deteriorating due to the release of pollution containing the chemicals chlorine and bromine (chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs)
52DesertificationDesertification is an expansion of arid conditions into a non-arid environment.Major causes of desertification includeOvergrazing & poor grazing managementCultivation of marginal landsDestruction of vegetation in arid regionsIncorrect irrigation practices leading to salinization
54DeforestationDeforestation – the permanent destruction of indigenous forests and woodlands.Causes includeConversion of forests to agricultural land to feedpeopleDevelopment of cash crops and cattle raising esp. intropical countriesCommercial logging that is not regulatedPoor soils in humid tropics do not support agriculturefor long so more clearing becomes necessary
55Soil PollutionWays that soil can become polluted, such as: • Seepage from a landfill • Discharge of industrial waste into the soil • Percolation of contaminated water into the soil • Rupture of underground storage tanks • Excess application of pesticides, herbicides or fertilizer • Solid waste seepage Most common chemicals involved in causing soil pollution are: • Petroleum hydrocarbons • Heavy metals • Pesticides • Solvents
56Waste DisposalWaste, or rubbish, trash, junk, garbage is an unwanted or undesired material or substance. It may consist of the unwanted materials left over from a manufacturing process (industrial, commercial, mining or agricultural operations,) or from community and household activities.The material may be discarded or accumulated, stored, or treated (physically, chemically, or biologically), prior to being discarded or recycled.
60Urbanization Concerns: Public Health Food Supply Freshwater Coastlands and OceansForestsBiodiversity and Habitat DestructionGlobal Climate Change
61Habitat Fragmentation & Destruction Habitat destruction and fragmentation is a processthat describes the emergences of discontinuities(fragmentation) or the loss (destruction) of theenvironment inhabited by an organism.It results inLoss of resident speciesLoss of food sourcesLoss of ecosystem functions provided by the habitat
62Biodiversity Threats Habitat loss & Fragmentation Invasive species PollutionClimate ChangeOver exploitationHuman Populations
63Farming Practices Negative environmental impacts from unsustainable farming practices include: Land conversion & habitat lossWasteful water consumptionSoil erosion and degradationPollutionClimate changeGenetic erosion
65Part 3 – SolutionsA. Environmental Remediation Strategies B. Sustainability Strategies C. Nonrenewable vs. Renewable Energy Sources and Alternate Energy Sources D. Everyday Solutions as recycling and composting E. Legislation and Economic Opportunity for Solving Problems
66Tragedy of the CommonsConflict between individual interest and the common goodWhen individuals use a public good, they do not bear the entire cost of their actionsWho takes responsibility for protecting the environment?
67Environmental Remediation Strategies Environmental remediation is the removal of pollution or contaminants from the environmentStrategies and techniques include (coordinated by EPA)Site assessment and mappingExcavation and dredgingPump and treatSolidification and stabilizationOxidationSoil vapor extractionBioremediation – using microbes to remove pollutants
68Sustainability Strategies Sustainability - biological systems enduring and remaining diverse and productive Strategies include Minimize energy consumption & using alternate energy Minimize water consumption Minimize negative environmental impacts Minimize waste generation and recycling Develop eco-friendly products and processes
69Strategies for a Sustainable World advancing technologies to reduce wasteincreasing recycling and reusecreating even safer treatment and disposal optionsdeveloping sources of renewable energysharing the benefits of our learning and innovation
70Nonrenewable vs. Renewable Energy Sources Non-renewable energy sources – fossil fuels as coal, oil and natural gas as well as nuclear fuels – limited supply will run out and have negative environmental impactsRenewable energy sources – sun, wind, waves, heat, hydropower and biomass that can be used again and again and is cleanest energy sources.There are pros and cons for each type of energy
71Alternate Energy Sources Alternate to Fossil Fuels – produced and recovered without negative effects on the environment asSolarWind powerGeothermalTides and wavesBiomassFuel cells
73Composting Benefits of Composting Soil Conditioner – create rich humus Recycles kitchen and yard wasteIntroduces beneficial organisms in the soilGood for the environment as a natural alternative to chemical fertilizersReduces landfill waste
74Economic Opportunity Support careers in Environmental Remediation Development of Environmentally Safe Products and Processes which are economically sound.Encourage Economic Growth that is environmentally beneficial
75Legislation – Role of EPA- Div.C 1. Clean Air Act (CAA)2. Clean Water Act (CWA)3. Emergency Planning & Community Right-To-Know Act (EPCRA)4. Endangered Species Act5. Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)6. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)7. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)8. Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)9. Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA)10. Pollution Prevention Act (PPA)11. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)12. Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)13. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund)14. Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act15. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)