2 Topics for Discussion Brownfield Discussion Gas Detection Definition BackgroundFunding & Limited LiabilityRegulationsGas DetectionOverviewEngineering RequirementsEquipmentPlacement
3 Brownfield/Landfill Applications What is a Brownfield according to EPA“…..real property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant or contamination.”This includes sites contaminated byControlled substancesPetroleum or petroleumproductsMine-scarred lands
4 Brownfield/Landfill Applications Brownfields…abandoned, idled or under-utilized commercial or industrial facilities where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination – properties with the potential to become thriving industrial, commercial or residential developments.
5 Brownfield/Landfill Applications Brownfield PropertiesEstimated 500,000 in the United StatesMost sites known by community and not listedBrownfields in every county, urban and rural area
6 Brownfield/Landfill Applications BackgroundIn 1994 US EPA responded with an approach that paved the way for innovative and creative ways to assess, clean up, and redevelop brownfields sites. The 2002 Small Business Liability Relief and Brownfields Revitalization Act expands potential federal financial assistance for brownfields revitalization, including grants for assessment, cleanup and job training.
7 Brownfield/Landfill Applications BackgroundPost-closure Land Use/Residential & Commercial Development of former disposal sitesSafety regulations (OSHA) drive industrial requirements for monitoring hazardous conditions (Petroleum and natural gas industry), which drove sensor technology developmentCombustible gas monitoring applied in industrial settings for safety purposesCombustible gas monitoring applied in residential and commercial settings due to 27 CCR Landfill Gas Monitoring and Control requirements and Brownfield and industrial developmentBackground: Just a review of how automated gas detection systems used in industry (chemical manufacturing, petroleum and natural gas industry) can (and has been) applied to structures on or near landfills and disposal sites.Key events:-PCLU and development of old disposal sites-Safety regulations for gas detection in place for activities which store, transport & handle combustible gases-Direct Digital Control Automation Systems developed in 1980s to control energy use-Combustible Gas Detection systems in place in natural gas industry-Continuous monitoring required in 27 CCR Article 6 (Gas Monitoring and Control Regulations) and 27 CCR 21190
8 Brownfield/Landfill Applications Reasons for Brownfield Growth – Title II Government FundingFunding$200 million per year (thru “06)Site assessment and cleanup grants$50 million may be used for sites with petroleum contaminationLiability ClarificationProvides Superfund Liability to owners, purchasers and innocent landowners
9 Brownfield/Landfill Applications Structure Gas Monitoring Requirements in 27 CCR
10 Brownfield/Landfill Applications Structural Gas Monitoring Regulations in 27 CCRFederal Regulations (40 CFR Part ) Explosive Gas ControlState Regulations (27 CCR Article 6)27 CCR Gas Monitoring & Control Regulations(a) 1 Explosive Gas Control.20921 Gas M&C During Closure/PC20931 Structure Monitoring20934 Reporting20937 Control21190 Post-closure Land UseOf course it’s important to know the statutory authority requiring continuous monitoring systems, which are found in both Federal and State regulations:Generally Subtitle D requires gas monitoring and control and27 CCR Article 6 Gas Monitoring and Control Requirements ( )Continuous gas monitoring is also discussed in the Postclosure Land-use Section 21190
11 Brownfield/Landfill Applications Structural Gas Monitoring Regulations in 27 CCR27 CCR (a) 1 Explosive Gas Control “…owners…must ensure that: (1) The concentration of methane gas generated by a (MSWLF) facility does not exceed 25 percent of the LEL for methane in facility structures…”20921 (a) (1) requires that “…The concentration of methane gas must not exceed 1.25% by volume in air within on-site structures…”20931(a) “…monitoring network design shall include provisions for monitoring on site structures, including but not limited to buildings, subsurface vaults, utilities or other areas where potential gas buildup would be of concern…”
12 Brownfield/Landfill Applications Structural Gas Monitoring Regulations in 27 CCR20931(c) “…Structures located on top the waste disposal area shall be monitored on a continuous basis..”20934 (a)(1) “…monitoring reports shall include: (1) the concentrations of the methane….within each on-site structure…”20937 (a)(3) “…the documentation of date, time, barometric pressure, atmospheric pressure, general weather conditions and probe pressures…” Control (d) “…When the results of monitoring in on site structures indicate levels in excess of those specified in Section 20923(a), the operator shall take appropriate action to mitigate the effects of landfill gas accumulation in on site structures, and public health and safety, shall include one or more of the following:…(4) Alarms, …(5) Ignition source control…(7) Ventilation…”
13 Brownfield/Landfill Applications Structural Gas Monitoring Regulations in 27 CCR27 CCR a) Proposed PCLUs (Post Closure Land Use) shall be designed and maintained to: …(3) prevent landfill gas explosions…”27 CCR e) “…Construction of structural improvements on top of landfilled areas…shall meet the following conditions:…(1) automatic methane gas sensors, designed to trigger an audible alarm when methane concentrations are detected, shall be installed in all buildings…”27 CCR e) (8) periodic methane gas monitoring shall be conducted inside all buildings…”
14 Brownfield/Landfill Applications Structure Gas Monitoring
15 Brownfield/Landfill Applications Structure Gas Monitoring
16 Brownfield/Landfill applications Gas Measures at PCLU projectsExample of PCLU project where gas monitoring and control measures occurred as part of the construction of a Home Depot on an old disposal site in Marin County. The facility was constructed with a membrane liner and continuous gas monitoring system which were tied to an alarm and ventilation system in the building. Additionally a gas control system was operated within the landfill.
17 Brownfield/Landfill Applications Typical Gas Detection System on Brownfield
18 Brownfield/Landfill Applications Brownfield / Landfill Gas DetectionMethane & other Toxic gases from unused industrial sites may, if undetected, pose a potentially serious threat to anyone living or working nearby. It is essential that such risk be minimized by the use of continuous and accurate gas monitoring within the building.Sierra Monitor has a solution for buildings constructed on Brownfield sites.
19 Brownfield/Landfill Applications Typical Gases Found and Require MonitoringCombustible Gas (methane typically)AmmoniaCarbon MonoxideChlorineHydrogen SulfideNitrous Oxides
20 Brownfield/Landfill Applications Products Used in Detection of GasesSentry SystemIT Series4-20mAAlarm Only
21 Brownfield/Landfill Applications ↑ Elevator Shaft Sensor ↓House IR Sensor in CeilingVent Riser, % by Volume IR
23 Brownfield/Landfill Applications Location of Landfill Gas MonitorsLandfill gas monitors are typically placed in three types of locations at or near landfills; these are subsurface, surface, or enclosed space. The three types of monitoring locations address different landfill gas concerns and can be used either alone or together in a sampling program. Note that these systems generally do not measure landfill gas levels at points of human exposure.Subsurface Systems—Subsurface systems measure concentrations of contaminants in the soil gas at locations beneath the soil-air interface. The depth of sampling can range from a few inches to many feet below the surface.Surface Systems—Surface systems measure concentrations of gas within a couple of inches above the soil-air interface.Enclosed Space Systems—Enclosed space systems monitor gases in indoor air or confined areas overlying or adjacent to landfills, such as buildings, subsurface vaults, utilities, or any other spaces where thepotential for gas buildup is of concern.
24 Brownfield/Landfill Applications Gas Sensor Placement OverviewAny accessible confined spaces near a landfill where a 5-15% LEL-UEL condition would most likely occurStructures on or within 1000 feet of the landfill (homes, buildings, warehouses, etc)Basements, sub-floors and raised foundationsUtility systems: manholes, vaults, boxes and subsurface trenches, storm drains, water & electrical distribution in the vicinity or through the disposal areaUtility closets, mechanical rooms, bathrooms (utility penetrations)Water wells, excavations (pools)