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SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF TANNERY HAIR WASTE THROUGH COMPOSTING ARTHUR ONYUKA.

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Presentation on theme: "SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF TANNERY HAIR WASTE THROUGH COMPOSTING ARTHUR ONYUKA."— Presentation transcript:

1 SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF TANNERY HAIR WASTE THROUGH COMPOSTING ARTHUR ONYUKA

2 Overview Background Aims and Objectives Why composting? Experimental Results and Discussion Concluding Remarks

3 Tanning process Large amount of liquid and solid waste generated. Main cause for environmental concern. Bovine hideBeamhouse process Unhairing Liming

4 Solid waste arising Fleshing and fats Solid hair Trimmings Sludge Characteristics of beamhouse solid waste: Beamhouse 80% Tanning 17% Wet end 2% Finishing 1% Total = 700 kg Source: Puntener, A. (1995). JALCA, 90: 206

5 Disposal and Treatment options Disposal Landfill Land spreading Dumping Biological Composting Anaerobic digestion MBT Thermal Incineration Pyrolysis Gasification Treatments

6 Main Disposal and Treatments

7 Environmental concerns Green House Gas emissions.  Risk of global warming.  Health risks Risk of water pollution.  Health risks Non-sustainable use of land and loss of resources. Landfill disposal

8 Legislation  Integrated Pollution Prevention & Control 96/61/EC - aim to prevent and reduce pollution caused by production.  Waste Framework Directive 75/442/EEC - sets out key objectives based on a hierarchy of options.  Landfill Directive 99/31/EC - sets targets for the reduction of biodegradable wastes sent to landfill.

9 Waste minimisation strategies Based on Waste Framework Directive 75/442/EEC.  Forms key part of BAT

10 Aims and Objectives Key Aim Sustainable management of tannery hair waste through composting. Key Objectives Identify suitable biological treatment to enhance hair degradation. Develop favourable conditions for composting of hair waste.

11 Why composting? Environmentally acceptable.  Stabilised product Valuable product for the market.  Hair contains about 15% nitrogen Ability to utilise the bulk of hair. Inexpensive and adaptable

12 Potential Markets A C B A.Agriculture B.Landscaping C.Sport turf

13 Understanding composting Organic matter (including carbon, chemical energy, protein, nitrogen) Minerals (including nitrogen & other nutrients) Water Micro-organism Organic matter (including carbon, chemical energy, nitrogen, protein), minerals, water, micro-organism Raw materials Oxygen Composted organic material water Heat CO 2 Compost pile Biological process

14 Experimental

15 Experimental model FEEDSTOCKPHASE 1PHASE 2PHASE 3 Bovine hair, sawdust/ wood chips, dry leaves & soil (C:N = 35:1) Composting Static: 40-50C Rotary drum Microbial degradation Enhanced composting Optimise hair degradation through control of:  Temperature  Moisture & pH  Agitation  Culture  Identify  Isolate Apply optimised parameters, Phase 1 & 2

16 Composting vessels Static processDrum process

17 Analyses Microscopy: light & scanning electron microscopy (SEM). pH: electrochemical method. Moisture (% RH).

18 Analyses Nitrogen: Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen Method. Biochemical Tests: Folin-Lowry method, Gram staining, selective culture media. Carbon: weight loss on-ignition of dry 560C then cooling to constant weight (% Carbon = Organic matter x 100/1.8).

19 Results and Discussion

20 Properties of the micro-organism Growth 40 – 50C Microscopic observationsRod shaped and stains gram +ve SpeciesBacillus pH range7.5 – 10 pH of optimum activity9.0 Optimum temperature 50C Substrate specificityKeratinolytic + general protease InhibitionE.D.T.A

21 Microbial properties Crude Microbes: on keratin azurePurified: optimum pH Inhibition Collagen hydrolysed BlankTreated

22 Microbial degradation of hair Intact hair Hair degradation 56 7 (Mag. X600, 5.0kV) (Mag. X1.0K, 5.0kV) (Mag. X400, 5.0kV)

23 Composting parameters Compost achieved self-buffering at pH 7.0 and 8.0 Average temperature 49C Thermal destruction of > 55C

24 Composting parameters Supports microbial activity Must be balanced to allow oxygen transfer. Excessive: anaerobic process Average moisture: 55% RH

25 Structural modification Control: 15 daysTreated: 15 days 60 days (Mag. X800, 5.0kV) (Mag. X600, 5.0kV)

26 Final products Control: 120 daysTreated: 120 days Compost sample (Mag. X300, 5.0kV)(Mag. X600, 5.0kV) (Mag. X40, 5.0kV)

27 Final product Dark and tacky Nitrogen content: % per gram of sample. Carbon content: % per gram of sample. 16 Product

28 Remarks An environmental-friendly technology to manage tannery hair waste has been demonstrated. Future merits includes: environmental and economic benefits through cost-saving and saleable product. The decomposition of hair can be enhanced through the use of specific micro-organisms and optimisation of the environmental processing parameters.

29 Acknowledgements Dr. Paula Antunes Dr. Margaret Bates Prof. Geoff Attenburrow Prof. Anthony Covington Pat Potter (Mrs) Mandy Taylor (Ms) Tanya Hayes (Mrs) Annie Lama (Ms)

30 Thank you


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