Presentation on theme: "SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF TANNERY HAIR WASTE THROUGH COMPOSTING ARTHUR ONYUKA."— Presentation transcript:
SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF TANNERY HAIR WASTE THROUGH COMPOSTING ARTHUR ONYUKA
Overview Background Aims and Objectives Why composting? Experimental Results and Discussion Concluding Remarks
Tanning process Large amount of liquid and solid waste generated. Main cause for environmental concern. Bovine hideBeamhouse process Unhairing Liming
Solid waste arising Fleshing and fats Solid hair Trimmings Sludge Characteristics of beamhouse solid waste: Beamhouse 80% Tanning 17% Wet end 2% Finishing 1% Total = 700 kg Source: Puntener, A. (1995). JALCA, 90: 206
Disposal and Treatment options Disposal Landfill Land spreading Dumping Biological Composting Anaerobic digestion MBT Thermal Incineration Pyrolysis Gasification Treatments
Main Disposal and Treatments
Environmental concerns Green House Gas emissions. Risk of global warming. Health risks Risk of water pollution. Health risks Non-sustainable use of land and loss of resources. Landfill disposal
Legislation Integrated Pollution Prevention & Control 96/61/EC - aim to prevent and reduce pollution caused by production. Waste Framework Directive 75/442/EEC - sets out key objectives based on a hierarchy of options. Landfill Directive 99/31/EC - sets targets for the reduction of biodegradable wastes sent to landfill.
Waste minimisation strategies Based on Waste Framework Directive 75/442/EEC. Forms key part of BAT
Aims and Objectives Key Aim Sustainable management of tannery hair waste through composting. Key Objectives Identify suitable biological treatment to enhance hair degradation. Develop favourable conditions for composting of hair waste.
Why composting? Environmentally acceptable. Stabilised product Valuable product for the market. Hair contains about 15% nitrogen Ability to utilise the bulk of hair. Inexpensive and adaptable
Potential Markets A C B A.Agriculture B.Landscaping C.Sport turf
Understanding composting Organic matter (including carbon, chemical energy, protein, nitrogen) Minerals (including nitrogen & other nutrients) Water Micro-organism Organic matter (including carbon, chemical energy, nitrogen, protein), minerals, water, micro-organism Raw materials Oxygen Composted organic material water Heat CO 2 Compost pile Biological process
Composting parameters Compost achieved self-buffering at pH 7.0 and 8.0 Average temperature 49C Thermal destruction of > 55C
Composting parameters Supports microbial activity Must be balanced to allow oxygen transfer. Excessive: anaerobic process Average moisture: 55% RH
Structural modification Control: 15 daysTreated: 15 days 60 days (Mag. X800, 5.0kV) (Mag. X600, 5.0kV)
Final products Control: 120 daysTreated: 120 days Compost sample (Mag. X300, 5.0kV)(Mag. X600, 5.0kV) (Mag. X40, 5.0kV)
Final product Dark and tacky Nitrogen content: % per gram of sample. Carbon content: % per gram of sample. 16 Product
Remarks An environmental-friendly technology to manage tannery hair waste has been demonstrated. Future merits includes: environmental and economic benefits through cost-saving and saleable product. The decomposition of hair can be enhanced through the use of specific micro-organisms and optimisation of the environmental processing parameters.
Acknowledgements Dr. Paula Antunes Dr. Margaret Bates Prof. Geoff Attenburrow Prof. Anthony Covington Pat Potter (Mrs) Mandy Taylor (Ms) Tanya Hayes (Mrs) Annie Lama (Ms)