7Environmental concerns Landfill disposalGreen House Gas emissions.Risk of global warming.Health risksRisk of water pollution.Non-sustainable use of land and loss of resources.
8Legislation Legislation Integrated Pollution Prevention & Control 96/61/EC- aim to prevent and reduce pollution caused by production.Waste Framework Directive 75/442/EEC- sets out key objectives based on a hierarchy of options.Landfill Directive 99/31/EC- sets targets for the reduction of biodegradable wastes sent to landfill.
9Waste minimisation strategies Based on Waste Framework Directive 75/442/EEC.Forms key part of BAT
10Aims and Objectives Key Aim Key Objectives Sustainable management of tannery hair waste through composting.Key ObjectivesIdentify suitable biological treatment to enhance hair degradation.Develop favourable conditions for composting of hair waste.
11Why composting? Environmentally acceptable. Stabilised productValuable product for the market.Hair contains about 15% nitrogenAbility to utilise the bulk of hair.Inexpensive and adaptable
20Properties of the micro-organism Growth40 – 50CMicroscopic observationsRod shaped and stains gram +veSpeciesBacilluspH range7.5 – 10pH of optimum activity9.0Optimum temperature50CSubstrate specificityKeratinolytic + general proteaseInhibitionE.D.T.A
21Crude Microbes: on keratin azure Microbial propertiesCrude Microbes: on keratin azurePurified: optimum pH21BlankTreatedTreated34Collagen hydrolysedInhibition
27Final product 16 Dark and tacky Nitrogen content: % per gram of sample.Carbon content: % per gram of sample.Product
28RemarksAn environmental-friendly technology to manage tannery hair waste has been demonstrated.Future merits includes: environmental and economic benefits through cost-saving and saleable product.The decomposition of hair can be enhanced through the use of specific micro-organisms and optimisation of the environmental processing parameters.
29Acknowledgements Dr. Paula Antunes Dr. Margaret Bates Prof. Geoff AttenburrowProf. Anthony CovingtonPat Potter (Mrs)Mandy Taylor (Ms)Tanya Hayes (Mrs)Annie Lama (Ms)