2Gender InequalityGender Stratification – refers to men’s and women’s unequal access to power, property, and prestigeGender = master statusLabel that guides our behavior and serves as a basis of power and privilege.
3Gender Sex – biological distinctions between male and female. Includes primary and secondary sex organsGender – the expectations and behaviors which varies from one society to another and refers to what is considered proper for males and females; acquired through socialization.Gender identity – an awareness of being masculine or feminine, based on culture.
4GenderGender roles – culturally-based expectations associated with each sex.Represent an ideal since people do not always behave as expected.Sex stereotypes encourage men to be masculine and women to be feminine.
5Biological EvidenceBiological determinism – attribution of behavioral differences to inherited physical characteristics.Obvious differences between sexes include muscle and bone structure and fatty tissue composition.Dominant Position in SociologySocial Factors Primary, Not BiologicalIf Biological, Should Be Less Variation
6Functionalist Perspective on Gender Division of responsibilities between males and females survived because it was beneficial for human living.Early humans found sex-based division of labor efficient and endured because it promoted the survival of the species.The traditional division of labor has dysfunctions, especially for modern society.
7Conflict Perspective on Gender Men and women have differential access to the necessary resources outside-the-home success.By keeping the traditional division of labor intact, men can maintain the status quo and preserve the privileges they enjoy; protect their dominance of women and society.Marxist and socialist feminists – position of women in capitalist society:patriarchal (male-dominated) institutions andthe historical development of industrial capitalism.
8Symbolic Interactionism Perspective on Gender Gender definitions are imparted through socialization.They are learned and reinforced through interaction with parents, teachers, peers, and the media.Gender socialization occurs through elements of the mass media such as books, television, and advertising.
9Focus on Theoretical Perspectives: Gender Inequality
10Parents Contribution to Gender Socialization Parents begin socializing children at birth.Transfer values and attitudes regarding the ways boys and girls should behave.As parents respond to their children’s behavior, they usually intentionally as well as unconsciously continue to transfer their gender-related values.Children are evaluated according to their level of conformity to gender definition.
11Schools Contribution to Gender Socialization Teachers encourage different behaviors from girls and boys.Girls are systematically taught passivity, a dislike of math and science, and a deference to the alleged superior abilities of boys.Teachers are more likely to call on boys and accept answers given by boys who call out answers.
12Peer Contribution to Gender Socialization Children who imitate the opposite sex meet considerable opposition.Adolescence is the time when an individual is establishing an identity, and identity is closely linked with definitions of masculinity and femininity.
13Media Contribution to Gender Socialization In general, the media present the most stereotypical version of gender definitions, thus reflecting and reinforcing the limits on the options available to both sexes.Nowhere in the mass media are gender role stereotypes more prevalent than in advertising.
14Women as a Minority Group Gender is the primary division between people.Women suffer the effects of sexism: a set of beliefs, norms, and values used to justify sexual inequality.Sexist ideology – the belief that men are naturally superior to women.Is sexism disappearing?Yes and No
15Gender Inequality in the US Until the 20th century, US women did not have the right to vote, hold property, make legal contracts, or serve on a juryWhile women enjoy more rights today, gender inequality still continues to play a central role in social life.Gaps continue to be reflected in the continuing occupational, economic, legal, and political inequality experienced by American women.
16Gender Inequality in the US Evidence of educational gains made by women.More females than males enrolled in college.Females earn 56% of all bachelor degreesWomen complete bachelor degrees faster than menProportion of professional degrees earned by women has increased sharply.
19Gender Inequality Despite gains some old practices persist Women’s sports are still underfundedGender tracking – channeled into different fields81% of engineering degrees – males88% of library science degrees – womenHigher educationWomen professors less likely to be in the higher ranks of academiaPaid less than their male counterpartsLess likely to be taken seriously
20Gender Inequality in the Workplace The Pay GapWomen earn about 80 cents to the dollar of what men are paid.All industrialized nations have a pay gap.Research found that half of the gender gap is due to women choosing lower-paying careers.The other half is due to gender discrimination and the “child-penalty” –women missing out on work experience while they care of their children.
21U.S. Labor Force Participation Rates by Sex: 1890–2008
24Gender InequalityWomen of all races and ethnic groups earn less than menAfrican American and Latino women have a significantly lower wage gap with their male counterparts than white and Asian women experience
25Women’s Wages Compared with Men’s Wages, by Race and Ethnicity
26Changing Face of Politics Women majority in population yet women are underrepresented in governmentAbout ¼ of state legislators are women.Women occupy about 17% of the seats in the U.S. House of Representatives, yet comprise about ½ of the population.Women Underrepresented in Law and Business CareersPatterns are changing – more women going into law and business.
27Political Gender Equity The right to vote is now granted to practically all people in the world.Female representation in national parliaments slowly increased, from 11 percent in 1995 to 19 percent in 2010.On average across the globe, women hold only 17 percent of cabinet positions, up from 8 percent a decade ago.
28Changing Gender Roles in the US Although men may not be aware that their suppression ofwomen is to their own advantage they can see little reason tochange the way things have always been.2. Even if men were willing to relinquish their dominant position,it would be costly to them to do so.3. Some women resist giving up some advantages they see forthemselves in the traditional gender role arrangement.4. An ideology still exists that supports members of both sexeswho wish to maintain their traditional gender roles.
29The Feminist MovementThe women’s movement is a social movement aimed at the achievement of sexual equality—socially, legally, politically, and economically
30Gender Roles in the Future Women are living longer, bearing fewer children, becoming better educated, and entering the labor force in greater numbers than at any other time in history.If these trends continue, certain gender role changes should occur.Barriers Coming DownActivities DegenderedNew Consciousness
31Questions for Consideration What are factors that promote change in gender roles, gender inequality, etc.?What is your reaction to the identified definition of feminism as “a social movement aimed at the achievement of sexual equality”? Based on this definition, would you classify yourself as a feminist or non-feminist?
32Gender InequalityMore progress toward gender equality has occurred in developed countries than in developing countries, and gender parity remains a future goal around the world, despite some progress over the last two decades.