Presentation on theme: "Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women through Rural Development Programmes Renana Jhabvala SEWA."— Presentation transcript:
Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women through Rural Development Programmes Renana Jhabvala SEWA
Empowerment or Inclusiveness? Powerlessness is a very strong feeling in the poor, because of their daily struggle for survival against strong economic and social forces. Poor women often powerless within household worse off. Powerlessness causes fear that kills the human spirit. Empowerment results in a change in the balance of power, in the living conditions, and in the relationship. The most important effect of empowerment is that the person says “ Now I do not afraid”.
Empowerment or Inclusiveness? Inclusive Growth necessary for overall development of a country. Political development has become inclusive and decentralized, economic development centralized and exclusive. Empowerment requires an inclusive economic development.
Paid work for the market—direct income. Unpaid work for the market as part of family work—indirect income. Unpaid work for the family—cooking, cleaning, water, fuel, care. Women in the Rural economy
Structure of the economy Poverty Risk Average Earnings Segmentation by Sex Low High Predominantly Women High Low Unpaid Family Workers Small Producers & Small Farmers Big farmers & owners of large enterprises Regular Workers & Professionals Predominantly Men Men & Women
Self Employed Women’s Association Started by Smt Ela Bhatt in 1972—registered under Trade Union Act. Gandhian principles Over 11,00,000 members in 2007 in 9 States of India. A Family of Organizations To organise women workers to achieve full employment, i.e. work security, income security, food security and social security To make women individually and collectively self-reliant,
Sister Organizations SEWA Bank with over 300,000 depositors and working capital of Rs. 100 crores. SEWA Social Security - Health Care, Child Care reaching 400,000 members. SEWA Insurance - 200,000 covered.
Sister Organizations SEWA Marketing Companies– Reaching 50,000 producers. SEWA Housing and Infrastructure-- 40,000 given services. SEWA Academy—Training 30,000 women a year. SEWA promoted Co-operatives and District SHG Associations—covering 100,000 women.
Feminization of Agriculture Changing demographics of agriculture - growing feminisation as men move to non-farm. 53% of all men workers, 75 % of all women workers, 85% of rural women workers are in agriculture. More than 20% of rural households de facto female- headed. Many women managing farms without male support. Women are 40% of agricultural workforce & % rising.The face of agriculture is increasingly female. Hence achieving agricultural growth targets will depend increasingly on policies that increase the efficiency of women farmers. To increase their efficiency women farmers need recognition, land titles, credit, infrastructure support (technology, inputs, extension, marketing).
Increasing Incomes, Increasing Assets for farmers: Some egs. from SEWA Release of mortgaged land through SEWA Bank– adding women’s names to land titles Credit through SHG federations for seeds, fertilizers etc. Watershed management through SHG district federations Technical training and supply of seeds Marketing through Krishi Bazaars, linkages with Spices Board, Private corporations Processing and marketing Rudi Brand of Gram Haat Mobilizing Co-operatives through trade union action in MP forests
Homebased Production—Majority but invisible Outside of agriculture 53% of all women workers are home-based producers–e.g. bidi or aggarbatti rollers, textiles, handicrafts etc. Growing markets incl exports—Handloom and handicrafts exports grown in last 3 years from Rs 15942 crores to Rs 20981 crores But a chain of contractors, no direct access to market. Very low rates to women producers.
Increasing income and market access—some egs from SEWA Embroidery workers of Gujarat: ---- Identification of skill level and upgrading skill ---- Training in market demands, quality control and timely production ---- Decentralized Production system ---- Infrastructure: Quality garment, production, branding, marketing outlets ---- SEWA Trade Facilitation Centre—A Company of owned by artisans. Rs 1.5 crores turnover in 5 years. Aggarbatti Workers of Bihar ---- Teaching a new skill ---- Linking with a private company (ITC) for market and managerial skills ---- Quality control, decentralized production ---- Co-operative owned and managed by rural women formed in 2006—100 tonnes production per year in 2007.
---- Formed a trade union ---- Struggled for minimum wages, provident fund, identity cards ---- Linked with Central Government Bidi welfare fund for health care, housing, scholarships Bidi Workers of Madhya Pradesh
Labouring for Less 95% of women rural casual workers and 78% of men received less than national minimum wages Women receive 69% of the wage received by men in agriculture. Av. Agri wage was Rs. 40.6 for men and Rs. 28.6 for women (in 2000) Women unskilled, men more skilled. In construction women only manual, men mason etc. In Agriculture women weeding, transplanting, men ploughing. Women being displaced by mechanization esp. in construction, manufacturing and agriculture. High levels of seasonal migration---1crore in India per year Large numbers of SC and ST
Income and skills: Some egs from SEWA Skill training for construction workers—Karmika School Skill training to salt workers in Gujarat Organizing for NREGA in MP
Organizing for Empowerment: Member- Based Organizations The main lesson---need to have some form of organization for women to get empowered. The importance of Member-based Organizations (MBOs)—role of Government, NGOs, Private companies to promote and support them.
Its primary objective is to cater for the socio- economic needs of its members; a well-defined constituency from which membership is drawn; the organization is financed by its members; the highest decision making structure is (or should be) the most representative forum of members; a strongly developed sense of ownership of the organization by the members, and of accountability of the leadership to the membership; embody values of cooperation and solidarity. Objectives of Member-based Organisations
Types of Member-based organisations and Criteria of success Types: trade unions; cooperatives of various kinds: production, service, marketing, credit; SHGs and SHG Federations; Community-based finance institutions; informal insurance institutions; producer groups; Success Criteria: 1. A successful MBO achieves the objectives agreed upon by the members. 2. Retains or expands its membership. 3. Shows progress towards financial and managerial self-reliance,inspiring members to maintain their equity stake in the organization. 4. Brings improvement to the self esteem, economic, and social well-being of its members.
Success of Rural development programmes The main lesson---need to have some form of organization for women to get empowered. The importance of Member-based Organizations (MBOs)—role of Government, NGOs, Private companies to promote and support them.