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Chapter 4: Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition.

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1 Chapter 4: Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition

2 Achievement  Ability  Effort  Other People  Luck

3 Research & Theory on Effort (pg. 50)  Bernard Weiner, psychologist (1972, 1983)  Popularized belief that effort enhances achievement.

4 Research & Theory on Effort (pg. 50)  Covington (1983) and Harter (1980)  Research on importance of effort.  Effort is a motivational tool that can apply to any situation.

5 Effort  Not all students realize the importance of effort.  Studies demonstrate that some students are not aware that effort has a direct effect on success relative to task.  (Seligman, 1990, 1994; Urdan, Midgley, & Anderman 1998).  Obvious to adults, not to kids  Teachers must explain and exemplify effort.

6 Effort  Students can learn to change their beliefs on effort.  Demonstrating added effort will pay off in terms of achievement (Craske, 1985; Wilson & Linville, 1982)  Students taught relationship between effort and achievement increased achievement more that those taught time management and comprehension of new material (Van Overwalle & DeMetsenaere 1990).

7 Teaching Effort  Teach and exemplify the connection between effort and achievement.  Personal examples  Famous people  Familiar Stories

8 Personal Examples  Family  Friend  Childhood experience  Former student  Famous People  Think, Pair, Share

9 Famous People  “Rudy”  Notre Dame football walk on  Overcame his size through effort and hard work E

10 Jim Abbott  MLB pitcher born with one arm Threw a no-hitter for the Yankees in 1993

11 Sam Walton  Business man and entrepreneur  Built Wal-Mart into an international corporation

12 Familiar Stories  The Little Engine That Could  Obvious…  The Photographic Elephant  Story of an elephant that wanted to be a photographer and despite everyone telling him elephant’s can’t take pictures he works hard to make his dreams come true.  Bobby the Mountain Climber  Bobby failed to climb a snowy mount 30 times before finally making it to the top through perseverance and effort.

13 Recognition p.53  Wrong titles  praise  reward  Recognize  difficult tasks  change in behaviors

14 Praise and reward as forms of recognition Studies p.54  Intrinsic motivation  Deci 1971- paid college students to solve problems.  Found that the students that were paid spent less time on the puzzles during free time than did the experimental group that was motivated strictly on intrinsic motivation.  Deci indicated that students that are already intrinsically motivated to complete a task and are then given an extrinsic motivation will then have a decrease in intrinsic motivation.

15 Research p. 54-55  Kohn 1973 – said the rewards decreased intrinsic motivation  Lepper, Greene, and Nisbett 1973 – study indicated that reward decreased intrinsic motivation  Morine-Dershimer – 1982 praise for easy tasks undermines students actual ability.

16  Mark Morgan 1984, Wiersma 1992, Cameron and Pierce 1994, p.55  Indicated that when you looked at all research rewards can have either undermining or enhancing effects depending on circumstances.  Wiersma 1992, Cameron and Pierce 1994 p.55  Indicated that rewards work when based on a standards  Cameron and Pierce 1994 p.56  Verbal rewards (positive feedback) work no matter how the study is being measured

17 Conclusion of Research  Think recognizing student effort to change  recognizing specific tasks that students are accomplishing.  useful when given in the form of positive feedback  Stay away from tangible items (money and candy) if possible

18 Classroom p.58-59  Personalize praise  “Pause, Prompt, and Praise  Pause  Use when students are engaged in a demanding activity  Ask students to stop working  Ask students why the task is difficult  Prompt  Give specific feedback to the task  Recommended to use rubrics  Praise  When student implements the staff suggestions.  Make sure you choose your words wisely by knowing your students

19 Concrete Symbols of Recognition  Give tangibles  Specific  goals  Tasks  accomplishments  PBIS  p?video_id=103799&title=Responsive_Classro om_Teacher_Language__Reinforcing p?video_id=103799&title=Responsive_Classro om_Teacher_Language__Reinforcing

20 Keeping Track of Effort and Achievement (pg. 52)  Students can see the connection between effort and achievement  Have students keep track periodically  If students reflect on it, it can heighten awareness  Rubric for beach drawing

21 Chapter 8: Setting Objectives and Feedback

22 Research and Theory on Goal Setting  Goal setting is the process of establishing a direction for learning (Marzano, 2001, pg. 93).

23 Instructional goals narrow what students focus on (pg. 94).  If a teacher sets a goal, students understand less than if a specific goal were not set.  Setting a goal focuses on students’ attention that they do not get information related to the goal.

24 Instructional goals should not be too specific (pg. 94).  Instructional goals stated in general formats produce higher effective learning.  Mager’s Preparing Instructional Objectives explains 3 characteristics:  Performance-states what the learner is expected to be able to do  Conditions- describes any conditions  Criterion-acceptable performance

25 Students should be encouraged to personalize the teacher’s goals (pg. 94-95).  Teachers should establish classroom goals, but students should be encouraged to adapt to personal needs and desires.  This is why goals shouldn’t be too specific.  Students identify goals they will learn, but will contract for their grade (Kahle & Kelly, 1994, Miller & Kelly, 1994, Vollmer, 1995).

26 Classroom Practice in Goal Setting  Specific but flexible goals  Goal: To understand how each of the main organs work individually and also as a system.  I know that _____________.  I want to know more about __________. Contracts -Gives students flexibility and control over their learning.

27 Research and Theory on Providing Feedback  Teachers provide student with feedback relative to how they are doing. (Marzano, 2001).  “The most powerful single modification that enhances achievement is feedback. The simplest prescription for improving education must be ‘dollops of feedback.’” (Hattie, 1992).

28 TNT  What does feedback look like? Think of a time when you received feedback. What does it look, sound, and feel like? Think for 1 minute alone Notate for 1 minute Talk for 1 minute with partner

29 Feedback should be “corrective” in nature Provides students with what they are doing correct and not correct. Telling students that answers on a test are right or wrong has a negative effect on achievement. The best feedback involves an explanation.

30 Feedback should be timely  Feedback given immediately after a test is best.  The more the delay, the less improvement.  Giving a test immediately after a learning situation is less effective than giving it after one day.

31 Feedback should be specific to a criterion  For feedback to be most useful, it should reference a specific target of a skill.  Also called criterion-referenced feedback.  More effective on learning that norm- referenced feedback (compares students with other students).

32 Students can effectively provide some of their own feedback  Teachers are not the only ones to give feedback, students can monitor their own progress (Trammel, Schloss, & Alper, 1994).  Students can keep track of performance (Lindsley, 1972).  Students can keep a chart of accuracy and/or speed while learning a new skill.

33 Types of feedback  Rubrics  Specific notes  Student-led

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