Presentation on theme: "Student Motivation n How do I motivate students to learn?"— Presentation transcript:
Student Motivation n How do I motivate students to learn?
Educators on Student Motivation “There is and there can be no teaching where the attention of the scholar is not secured. The teacher who fails to get the attention of his scholars, fails totally.” Hughes- 1880
Educators on Student Motivation “A teacher who is attempting to teach without inspiring the pupil with a desire to learn is hammering cold iron.” Horace Mann
Student Motivation Wise Sayings????? n It makes little difference what you study, if only you hate it. n It is the bitter medicine that does you good. n A cold bath every morning develops will power.
Student Motivation More Wise Sayings??? n Self discipline through suffering builds sturdy character n Life is full of drudgery and school should prepare people for life as it actually is.
We may not take these statements seriously, but... Sometimes we teach as if this is how we think learning new material should be perceived by students.
Research on Motivating Students Motivation is either: n A general trait: Some students seem motivated to learn regardless of the activity. n Situation specific state: Sometimes the activity is the motivator. Students want to learn about horses, but could care less about wildlife.
Our Challenge? More concerned with motivation in a situation- specific state--getting students to learn information that they are not necessarily interested in learning. Acquired through: n modeling n communication of expectations n direct instruction
Expectency x Value Theory The effort people will expend on a task is a product of: n the degree to which they expect to be successful if they apply themselves. (Need to believe they can accomplish the task) n the benefits successful task completion will bring to them. (Need to believe the task is worthwhile)
Essential Preconditions for Motivating Students n Supportive Environment (Has to be OK to give an incorrect answer in class) n Appropriate level of challenge/difficulty n Meaningful learning objectives n Moderation/optimal use (Don’t over-use any motivation technique!)
Maintaining Success Expectations n Program for success: give them activities that are challenging but attainable. n Teach goal-setting, performance appraisal, and self- reinforcement: they need to understand for themselves when they have done well--even if you are not there for the pat on the back. n Help students recognize linkages between effort and outcome: We often take this for granted, but many students have “tried hard” in the past and were not successful. n Provide remedial socialization: recognize that this is not automatic and students may have to be encouraged/ prodded to take chances. You may be trying to overcome years of poor educational attainment.
Types of Student Motivation Extrinsic Incentives n Rewards for good performance n Structure appropriate competition n Emphasize instrumental value of academic activities Motivation from an outside source
Types of Student Motivation Capitalize on Intrinsic Motivation (from within) n Adapt tasks to students’ interests n Include novelty/variety elements n Allow opportunities for student decisions n Allow students to create finished products n Include simulation in teaching n Incorporate game-like features n Provide interaction with peers
Stimulating Student Motivation n Model interest in learning –important for students to see the teacher as someone who is interested in new information n Communicate desirable expectations –need to see teacher expects students to succeed
Stimulating Student Motivation n Minimize students’ performance anxiety –students will not learn if they are afraid to fail n Project intensity and enthusiasm –teacher abilities that are contagious for students n Induce task interest or appreciation –important to make the content important to the learner
Stimulating Student Motivation n Induce curiosity or suspense –students are naturally curious; keep their attention n Induce cognitive conflict –provide problems to solve that may have more than one answer n Make abstract content more concrete –show how theories are used in the real world n Provide advance organizers –let students know what to look for n Model task-related thinking and problem solving –show students how to solve problems; give examples Basic Motivation
Plan to Stimulate Student Interest Interest Approaches at the beginning of a lesson can help to increase student interest in learning
Developing Interest Approaches Three Major Goals of an Interest Approach n Get the attention of the students n Create a mental set n Create uncertainty. This leads to a felt need to know more!
Developing Interest Approaches Get the attention of students n Relia (models, specimens, tools, etc. n Stories n Problem situations
Getting their attention n Relia: Don’t just show the students the object. Discuss something about the object with the class n Stories or Jokes: Not just any story--make sure the story is related to the lesson n Problem Situation: Giving students a problem and letting them come up with possible solutions can often stimulate interest
Developing Interest Approaches Create a Mental Set n Ask about their experiences n Determine a baseline of information n Begin to focus on the topic
Why develop a mental set? n By following the previous suggestions, students will begin to see the application and importance of the topic to their lives. n Provides a logical lead-in to the lesson. n Sets the stage for developing uncertainty.
Developing Interest Approaches Create uncertainty leading to a felt need to know more! n Ultimate goal of an interest approach! n Students must understand there is more to learn n Accomplished by skilled questioning --general to specific
Creating Uncertainty n Many agricultural topics are somewhat familiar to the students. n As long as they feel they already know the information, there is little reason for them to pay attention to what you want to teach! n Important for you to help them realize they do not know everything they need to know about the topic.
How to Create Uncertainty Process: General to Specific Questions Ask a general question that most students should be able to answer? Important: In order to create uncertainty, you should know acknowledge correct responses! Keep them in suspense throughout this stage of the interest approach!!! What are some important things to consider in establishing a lawn? Possible student responses: soil preparation, type of grass, fertilizers needed, how to seed or sod, etc.
Creating Uncertainty (cont) Select one of the responses (one you had anticipated and prepared for) and ask a more specific question. What types of grasses are available? Possible answers: fescue, bermudagrass, etc. Ask a more specific question. Which type of fescue is best suited for this area? Students may respond as if they know. If they do, Question their responses. Could other types of fescue grow better in this situation? Will this type of fescue grow well in any condition? Is it possible that new varieties have been developed?
Once students realize they do not know all the answers they may be ready to learn! Transition Statement: “This is one of the things we will learn about establishing a lawn as we study this lesson.”
Developing Interest Approaches Characteristics of Good Interest Approaches n Related to the topic being taught n Brief n Stimulates thinking n Involves students n Arouses curiosity n Creates a personal felt need to know more