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Exploration and Expansion

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1 Exploration and Expansion

2 Basic Geography Facts that are important to the Age of Exploration

3 Can you name the seven continents?

4 Can you name the four oceans?
Arctic Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Pacific Ocean

5 Canada United States Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean Mexico

6 The Countries of Europe
England England Portugal France France Italy Italy Spain Spain

7 Exploration & Colonization

8 Economic reasons for European Exploration and Expansion
Spice During the crusades, European nations were exposed to various types of herbs and spices from the East. Initially the problem was that the Italians held a monopoly on the trade with the Middle East In 1453 Constantinople fell to the Islamic Ottoman Empire and since they were for the most part, not in friendly terms with the Muslims, Europeans sought to find direct trade route with the suppliers of the spice. Since Muslim countries controlled the land route, Europeans sought new route via sea routes.

9 Genoese (red) and Venetian (green) maritime trade routes in the Mediterranean and Black Sea provided them a monopoly on trade with the Middle East and Asia The Silk Road and Spice trade routes were later blocked by the Ottoman Empire in 1453, following the fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans, spurring exploration to find alternative sea routes to asia

10 Economic Factors that lead to Exploration and Expansion
Portugal, a country of one and a half million people, was comparatively poor and had few options open to it but to pursue a policy of overseas expansion. The expense of pursuing such a policy meant that the voyages of exploration had to be economically viable. So exploration was done on a small-scale and financed by individuals who sought a quick profit from the colonization and exploitation of the Atlantic Islands, and from the opening up of trade with West Africa. (For example Prince Henry the Navigator)

11 Economic reasons for European Exploration and Expansion
The fifteenth-century Portuguese navigators continued to explore because they were able to learn that wealth such as gold, ivory and slaves was available along the West Coast of Africa. Later in the 15th the goal of finding the source of the spice trade made discovering a sea-route to India the first priority of the Portuguese monarchy

12 Religious Factors that lead to European Exploration and Expansion
A critical motivator in the early days of exploration was Christian conversion. The Portuguese and Spanish had a military legacy of war against Islam, nurtured by the long Reconquista [re-conquest of the Iberian Peninsula]. This legacy of the Reconquista motivated the Christian monarchs not only make war against Islam but also to find vast populations to convert to the Christian faith.

13 Intellectual Reasons for European Exploration and Expansion
There was also a desire to expand Europe's knowledge about the world. Columbus for example took the knowledge gained from practical seamen about the wind patterns of the Atlantic and tested them during his voyages to prove their accuracy.

14 Factors that lead to Exploration and Expansion
Demand for Spices and Asian Goods Muslim Control of the Land Trade Routes Desire to spread Christianity (God) Desire to gain wealth (Gold) Desire for Chivalric Honor (Glory) Economic Competition between Countries

15 How European maps portrayed the world before the Renaissance
The Catholic Church and the T-O MAP

16 Following the fall of the Roman Empire, the quality of maps declined dramatically during the middle ages. Church-sponsored maps devolved into a simplified and stylized map of the world known as a T-O map. The T-O map derives its name from the map which appears to have the letter "T" contained within an "O" or circle. The circle represented the known universe and the "T' divided the world into the three known continents: Europe, Asia and Africa. The top of the "map" pointed east (the world "orient" means east and this is where we get the term orientation; now we usually orient maps to the north) The area between the horizontal line in the "T" and the top of the circle represented Asia. At the intersection of the 'T," on the Asia side, lay Jerusalem which was though, by the church to be the center of the universe.

17 How the Renaissance Impacted Exploration
New Ideas and Advances in Technology

18 Technology upgrades for Exploration
Mapmaking Ptolemy’s influence Navigation New Instruments Ship Design Larger, faster, could sail against the wind

19 Maps In the Renaissance, with the rediscovery of classical works, maps became more like surveys once again, while the discovery of the Americas by Europeans and the subsequent effort to control and divide those lands revived interest in scientific mapping methods. European mapmaking was a factor in the global spread of western power: “

20 Ptolemy and his influence
Claudius Ptolemy (90–168 CE) thought that, with the aid of astronomy and mathematics, the earth could be mapped very accurately. Ptolemy revolutionized the depiction of the spherical earth on a map by using perspective projection, and suggested precise methods for fixing the position of geographic features on its surface using a coordinate system with parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude.[ Ptolemy was not infallible. His most important error was a miscalculation of the circumference of the earth. He believed that Eurasia covered 180° of the globe, which convinced Christopher Columbus to sail across the Atlantic to look for a simpler and faster way to travel to India. Had Columbus known that the true figure was much greater, it is conceivable that he would never have set out on his momentous voyage.

21 Ptolemy Re-discovered
Ptolemy was the author of a scientific essay called Geography, which is a thorough discussion of the geographic knowledge of the Greco-Roman world. he assigned coordinates to all the places and geographic features he knew, in a grid that spanned the globe. Ptolemy also devised and provided instructions on how to create maps both of the whole inhabited world and of the Roman provinces. He also provided the necessary topographic lists, and captions for the maps


23 Magnetic Compass to Determine Direction

24 The Astrolabe was used to determine Latitude

25 Determining Speed Until the mid-19th century vessel speed at sea was measured using a chip log. This consisted of a wooden panel, weighted on one edge to float upright, and thus present substantial resistance to moving with respect to the water around it, attached by line to a reel. The chip log was "cast" over the stern of the moving vessel and the line allowed to pay out. Knots placed at a distance of 47 feet 3 inches ( m) passed through a sailor's fingers, while another sailor used a 30 second sand-glass (28 second sand-glass is the current accepted timing) to time the operation.[ The knot count would be reported and used in the sailing master’s dead reckoning and navigation. This method gives a value for the knot of in/s, or km/h. The difference from the modern definition is less than 0.02%.

26 Ships and their Design The Galley

27 A galley is a type of ship propelled by rowers that originated in the Mediterranean region and was used for warfare, trade and piracy. Galleys dominated naval warfare in the Mediterranean Sea from the 8th century BC until development of advanced sailing warships in the 16th century.

28 Exploration and Expansion require changes in Ship Design

29 The Lateen Sail: A triangular sail
set on a long yard arm mounted at an angle on the mast, and running in a fore-and-aft direction. 1. One of the great technological developments in shipbuilding, lateen sails made ships more maneuverable. 2. Portuguese and Spanish merchants sailing into the Atlantic, such as Caravels typically used three or more lateen sails.

30 The Caravel a Revolution in Ship Design
The picture to the left is a Portuguese caravel. This was the standard model of ship used by the Portuguese in their voyages of exploration along the West African coast and into the Atlantic Ocean.. This style of ship was developed in the 15th century It could accommodate about 20 sailors.


32 Technology Improvements which aid Exploration
Better Maps (Ptolemy) The Astrolabe The Compass The Lateen Sail The Pit Log The Caravel

33 The Age of Exploration 14?? A time period when Europeans began to explore the rest of the world. Improvements in mapmaking, shipbuilding, rigging, and navigation made this possible. A time period of blue water sailing, not just coastal boats. A time period when the economics policy of mercantilism drives exploration for profit.

34 An Era of Early Exploration
In 1001, Viking sailors led by Leif Ericson reached North America. They left no permanent settlement.


36 Discovered in Norway in 1906, the Oseberg ship, the best preserved Viking ship ever found, reveals its Norse shipbuilders' graceful construction style.

37 Additional Expansion of European Territorial Claims SOL 4a Factors contributih and 4c

38 Explorer’s of the Age of Discovery: Portugal

39 The Portuguese are First (sort of)
Early Explorers

40 Prince Henry the Navigator
He was responsible for the early development of European exploration and maritime trade with other continents. Under his direction, a new and much lighter ship was developed, the caravel, which could sail further and faster. Henry started to effort to explore the coast of Africa, most of which was unknown to Europeans

41 Henry the Navigator Henry encouraged efforts to conquer the city of Ceuta in 1415. Capturing Ceuta a Muslim port on the North African coast across the Straits of Gibraltar from the Iberian peninsula would allow Portugal and Henry to gain control of the trans-Saharan trade routes that terminated there. Capturing the city exemplified the primary European motivations for Exploration and Expansion. Gaining Increased Wealth (Gold) Gaining Increased Fame (Glory) Defeating and Pushing back the Muslim Influence (God)

42 Western and Northern African Trade Routes
Location of Ceuta, which was the Northern terminal for trade Western and Northern African Trade Routes

43 Prince Henry sponsored voyages down the coast of Africa
These voyages were primarily exploration expeditions, but later brought back, numerous African slaves and other trade goods. The first contacts with the African slave market were made by expeditions to ransom Portuguese subjects enslaved by pirate attacks on Portuguese ships or villages. “ A very strong Christian, Henry saw his efforts almost as a continuation of the crusade against the Muslims. His actions against native people who were not Christians were violent, and helped start a violent world trend. Henry justified this on the grounds that he was converting these native people to Christianity. For Henry enslavement and Conversion to Christianity were interchangeable terms

44 Bartolomeu Dias Sailed around Cape of Good Hope at southern tip of Africa. Found route to Indian Ocean Trade can go from Europe to Asia by sea.


46 Vasco da Gama Landed in India in 1498.
Important trade route from Europe to India and East Indies.


48 The Explorers: Spain

49 Christopher Columbus 1492 – Made the Atlantic crossing with the Niña, Pinta, and Santa Maria. He traveled for Spain, hoping to reach the East Indies by sailing across the Atlantic. Instead, he reached the West Indies, islands in the Caribbean.

50 Christopher Columbus Believed a shorter route to Asia could be found by sailing westward instead of around Africa. Found the Americas instead. Oops.

51 Christopher Columbus




55 The Four Voyages of Columbus

56 “Discovery consists of seeing what everybody has seen and thinking what nobody has thought.”
Christopher Columbus, The Admiral who changed the world

57 Lasting Impact of Columbus
His voyages marked the beginning of lasting contact between Europe, Africa, and Americas. Devastated the Native American population. Columbian Exchange: exchange of goods, ideas, disease, etc. between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres.

58 What was the Colombian Exchange?
Massive exchange of plants, animals and diseases. These things moved between the New and Old Worlds. Started with Columbus. To the Americas: cows, horses, wheat, smallpox, plus much more. To Europe: potatoes, tomatoes, tobacco, corn, plus much more.

59 Old World to New World New World to Old World Diseases Animals Plants
Smallpox, Measles, Chicken Pox Malaria, Yellow Fever, Influenza, The Common Cold Syphilis Animals Horses, Cattle, Pigs, Sheep Goats, Chickens Turkeys, Llamas, Alpacas, Guinea Pigs Plants Rice Wheat Barley Oats Coffee Sugarcane Bananas Melons Olives Dandelions Daisies Clover Ragweed Kentucky Bluegrass Corn (Maize) Potatoes (White & Sweet Varieties) Beans (Snap, Kidney, & Lima Varieties) Tobacco Peanuts Squash Peppers Tomatoes Pumpkins Pineapples Cacao (Source of Chocolate) Chicle (Source of Chewing Gum) Papayas Guavas Avocados


61 Spain Builds an Empire Balboa – crossed the isthmus of Panama and claimed the Pacific for Spain Magellan – circumnavigated the globe. Cortez - Conquers the Aztecs Pissarro - Conquers the Inca Ponce de Leone - discovers Florida Desoto and Coronado - explore the North American South East and South West


63 Ferdinand Magellan His crew made first round-the-world voyage.
Proved for certain that the world was round. Magellan was killed in the Philippines, did not make it home.



66 The Demise of the Aztecs and the Inca

67 Spanish Terms Primogeniture—first born son inherits everything
Encomienda system—fort/mission/school/slave factory—converted enslaved natives to work on ranches/haciendas Conquistador—Spanish soldier/adventurer/knight, but usually the younger sons Hildago—young Spanish nobleman Black robes—Jesuit priests who accompanied the conquistadors, set up missions, converted the natives Peninsulare—Spanish born in Spain (Iberia) Mestizo—mixed parents—Sp. and Native or African Creole—pure Spanish parents, but born in the Americas

68 Spanish conquistadors
Cortés – Conquered the Aztecs, killed their emperor Montezuma. Pizarro – Conquered the Incas De Soto – explored Florida and died looking for gold he never found Coronado – claimed present day New Mexico and Arizona for Spain

69 Cortez and Aztecs a Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century In 1518 Cortez was put in command of an expedition to explore and secure the interior of Mexico for colonization On November 8, 1519, Cortez was peacefully received by the Aztec Emperor Moctezuma II, Moctezuma deliberately let Cortés enter the heart of the Aztec Empire, hoping to get to know the Spanish weaknesses better and to crush them later. Montezuma gave lavish gifts in gold to the Spaniards which enticed them to plunder the Aztec Empire

70 Montezuma Montezuma or Moctezuma [mok–] , 1480?–1520, Aztec emperor (c.1502–1520). He is sometimes called Montezuma II to distinguish him from Montezuma I (ruled 1440–69), who carried on conquests around Tenochtitlan. When Hernán Cortés arrived in Mexico, Montezuma, believing the Spanish to be descendants of the god Quetzalcoatl, tried to persuade them to leave by offering rich gifts. In Cortés later seized Montezuma as a hostage and attempted to govern through him. I In June, 1520, the Aztec’s rose against the Spanish and Montezuma was killed

71 Pizarro a Spanish conquistador, conqueror of the Incan Empire, and founder of Lima, the modern-day capital of the Republic of Peru. In 1513, Pizarro accompanied Vasco Núñez de Balboa in his crossing of the Isthmus of Panama and they became the first Europeans to view the Pacific coast of the New World Beginning in 1522 Pizarro lead several expeditions into South America seeking gold and precious gems These expeditions ended in 1533 with the defeat of the Incan King

72 Pizarro conquers the Incas
Atahualpa, ruler of the Inca, sensed that his Spanish captors were greedy and offered a room full of gold as ransom, or payment for his release. Pizarro agreed, and the Incas brought gold and silver statues, jewelry, and artwork from all over the empire. The Spanish ordered the Incas to melt everything down into gold bars. Pizarro then put Atahualpa on trial for treason for plotting against the Spanish. Atahualpa was found guilty and was executed on August 29, With the death of its leader, the Inca Empire soon fell.

73 Ponce da Leone first Governor of Puerto Rico by appointment of the Spanish crown. He led the first European expedition to Florida, which he named. He is associated with the legend of the Fountain of Youth, reputed to be in Florida.


75 Ponce de Leone When the war against the Emirate of Granada ended, there was no apparent need for his military services at home and like many of his contemporaries, Ponce de León looked abroad for his next opportunity

76 St. Augustine, Europe’s oldest permanent settlement in North America
On August 28, the Feast Day of Saint Augustine, Don Pedro Menendez de Aviles first sighted the coast of Florida. Twelve days later, on September 8, he stepped ashore, planted the Spanish flag into the sandy soil and, with soldiers and settlers who had traveled with him and Timicuans who greeted his arrival watching, Menendez founded a new city and named it St. Augustine. The year was From that day until today, the City of St. Augustine has continued to survive and thrive, making it the longest continually inhabited European founded city in the United States, or more commonly called the "Nation’s Oldest City." The Castillo de San Marcos, built , served primarily as an outpost of the Spanish Empire, guarding St. Augustine, the first permanent European settlement in the continental United States, and also protecting the sea route for treasure ships returning to Spain.

77 Coronado a Spanish conquistador, who visited New Mexico and other parts of what are now the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542.


79 Coronado’s March


81 The Explorers: England

82 John Cabot John Cabot ( ) was an Italian-born English explorer and navigator.

83 Christopher Newport Christopher Newport sailed for England. He was sent by the Virginia Company to establish a colony in the New World. Newport sailed with colonists and supplies on three ships: the Susan Constant, the Godspeed, and the Discovery. They landed in the New World in 1607 and named the new settlement Jamestown, after King James of England. Jamestown was the first successful English settlement. It is located on the James River in what is now Virginia.

84 Jamestown The 1st permanent English settlement Had a disastrous start
Thanks to the Indians, they survived When colonists started growing tobacco, the colony got better. By 1620, England was importing more than 30,000 lbs of tobacco a year.

85 Christopher Newport's Voyage
England Jamestown

86 Francis Drake made a habit out of raiding the Spanish treasure fleets
Francis Drake made a habit out of raiding the Spanish treasure fleets. He brought gold and jewels home to England. When the Spanish complained to Queen Elizabeth, she knighted him “Sir Francis Drake”!

87 Why do you think he wanted to be painted with his hand on a globe?
Sir Francis Drake Why do you think he wanted to be painted with his hand on a globe?

88 DRAKE, FRANCIS Sir Francis Drake ( ) was a British explorer, slave-trader, privateer (a pirate working for a government) in the service of England, mayor of Plymouth, England, and naval officer (he was an Admiral). Drake led the second expedition to sail around the world in a voyage lasting from 1577 to 1580


90 The Explorers: France

91 French Explorers Jacques Cartier In 1534 Cartier tried to find a sea passage to the East Indies through North America. He could not find a river that would take ships west from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. Instead he discovered the St. Lawrence River. The St. Lawrence River ended much sooner than Cartier expected. It ended on a high hill which Cartier named Mont Real or King's Mountain in honor of the King of France. Mont Real later became Montreal. Cartier named the area New France and claimed it in the name of the King of France. This discovery opened Canada for Europeans wanting to settle in North America. Cartier took colonists to Cape Rouge near Quebec. The colony was a failure. After this France lost interest in Canada. It would be more than 70 years before another Frenchman came to the mouth of the St. Lawrence River

92 Jacques Cartier Cartier sailed for France.
He was looking for the Northwest passage to the Indies. He explored the St. Lawrence River in Canada, near what later became Quebec.

93 Samuel de Champlain Samuel de Champlain In 1608 Champlain brought a group of settlers to the area around Montreal. They built a fort and a settlement. Champlain sent out traders to buy furs from the Indians. Champlain made friends with the Hurons. He brought missionaries to live with the Indians. These missionaries built churches. Champlain explored the Great Lakes and discovered Lake Champlain. Champlain was the first to systematically investigate the eastern shores of Canada and the New England coast.


95 Marquette and Joliet Father Marquette and Louis Joliet In 1672 Father Marquette, a missionary living with the Huron Indians, contacted Louis Joliet. He wanted them to find a river to the Pacific Ocean. They discovered the Mississippi River. The two traveled as far as the Arkansas River then returned north.

96 Robert LaSalle Robert LaSalle Robert LaSalle finished the trip that Father Marquette and Louis Joliet had started earlier. LaSalle sailed all the way to the mouth of the Mississippi River. Along the way he built a chain of trading posts. LaSalle claimed the entire Mississippi River in the name of  France. LaSalle received money from the King of France. His plan was to build a trading post at the mouth of the Mississippi River at the location which is now New Orleans. He got lost and build the post on a small branch of the Mississippi River farther west. Through this the French had a valuable hold on the New World. They made money from the fur trade.The French did little to settle in the New World however. They were more interested in building an empire in Europe. One reason the French were not interested in settling in the New World was because most of the French outposts were in the cold north woods. Many colonists did not want to live under these cold conditions.


98 New France Settled along the St. Lawrence River
Hunters and trappers (coureurs de bois – “runners of the woods”) Established friendly relations with the Indians Expanded down the Mississippi River Most largely free of government control

99 The Spanish Legacy of Rigid Class Systems and One man Rule in Latin America
SOL 4c

100 Settling New Spain 3 kinds of settlements: pueblos, presidios, and missions 4 social classes: Peninsulares, creoles, mestizos, Indians The Economic system: Encomienda’s or land grants to Spanish colonists which included the right to demand labor or taxes from the Indians

101 Spanish Colonial Government
Two men called Viceroys ruled the Spanish empire in the New World for the king of Spain. One Viceroy controlled for the Kingdom of New Spain. This included Mexico, the islands of the West Indies, and North America. The other Viceroy controlled the Kingdom of Peru. This also included Panama and the Spanish land in South America. The Viceroys made sure the king's laws were followed and taxes were collected. They had little authority on their own; all important matters had to be referred to the King/Queen. The concept of local government did not exist.

102 Spanish Place Names Hispanic Heritage from Coast to Coast
The Spanish were among the first Europeans to explore what is now the United States, and the first to found a permanent settlement here (St. Augustine, Florida, in 1565). From Alaska's Madre de Dios Island to Mexico, Maine, the United States is dotted with Spanish place names. Here are a few. Alamo: "poplar." This tall softwood tree gave its name to a number of U.S. places, including the memorable chapel-fort in Texas and the town of Los Alamos in New Mexico, where atomic bombs were produced. Alcatraz Island (California): from álcatraces, pelican. A sizable pelican population once lived on this rocky island in the San Francisco Bay. Boca Raton (Florida): from boca de ratónes, a Spanish term applied to nearby inlets. It translates as "mouth of the mouse" (not "rat," which is rata) and may refer to the jagged rocks at these inlets. It has also been suggested that ratónes was a term used for the pirates who might hide in such a place. California: The state was named for a mythical land described in a popular Spanish novel from around 1500, Las sergas de Esplandián (The exploits of Esplandián) by Garcia Ordóñez de Montalvo. Cape Canaveral (Florida): from cañaveral, canebrake. The promontory NASA made famous takes its name from the thickets of cane that grow in sandy areas. Colorado: "reddish." The state is named for the reddish color of mud found in the Colorado River. El Paso (Texas): "passage." The border city of El Paso lies at a small gap between the Rockies and the Juarez Mountains of Mexico. This narrow passage has made the city a hub for both north-south and east-west travel. Florida: "flowery." Some say that Spanish explorer Ponce de Leon named the land for the Spanish term for Easter, Pascua de Florida (Flowery Feast), because he first saw the land during the Easter season. Others believe he named it for the area's lush flowers. Fresno (California): "ash tree." The central Californian city and county are named for their abundant ash trees.

103 Spanish Conquest of the New World
The Spanish brought the new crops of sugar cane, coffee, and cereal grains to the New World. The Indians introduced the Spanish to tobacco, potatoes, corn, chocolate from cacao beans, and squash.

104 Spanish Economic Systems
In 1503 the crown began to legally grant encomiendas to soldiers, conquistadors and officials. The encomiendas became very corrupt and harsh. The downfall of the encomienda system began as early as 1510, when Dominican missionaries began protesting the abuse of the native people by Spanish colonists. The encomienda system was succeeded by the crown-managed repartimiento and the hacienda, or large landed estates, in which laborers were directly employed by the hacienda owners. Like the encomienda, the new repartimento did not include the attribution of land to anyone, only the allotment of native workers. The encomienda (Spanish pronunciation: [eŋkoˈmjenda]) is a labor system that was employed mainly by the Spanish crown during the colonization of the Americas and the Philippines. the crown granted a person a specified number of natives for whom they were to take responsibility. The receiver of the grant was to protect the natives from warring tribes and to instruct them in the Spanish language and in the Catholic faith.[1] In return, they could exact tribute from the natives in the form of labor, gold or other products, such as in corn, wheat or chickens. The encomienda was based on the familiar Reconquista institution in which adelantados were given the right to extract tribute from Muslims or other peasants in areas that they had conquered and resettled.

105 Harsh Life for Native Americans
Indians forced to work in Spanish mines Most die so Spanish seek other labor sources Atlantic slave trade begins

106 Bartholomeo de las Casas
Bartholomew de Las Casas was born in Seville, Spain in He was a young man of wealth and social position when Columbus returned in 1492 from the New World, bringing a captive Indian as a trophy. A typical young Spanish grandee, with a large amount of property on the island of Hispaniola, Bartolomew was atypically kind to the Native People who were slaves on his plantation. However the thought of slavery never really bothered him. It seemed at the time an eminently sensible method of colonizing a new land, and for many years while injustice flared on all sides, he paid little attention to the social injustice of the colonial system. In 1510, the Order of Preachers arrived in Hispaniola from Spain. From almost the beginning they began to preach against the entire system of slavery. Bartholomew de Las Casas was one of the colonists who heard Father Anthony Montesinos preach against slavery. While at that time he was not prepared to give up his slaves, he did realize with greater clarity the injustices he and the other Spaniards were committing against the Native People.. Las Casas soon after became a priest and he was assigned as chaplain to the army invading Cuba. Despite the promises made to him assuring a fair use of force; he witnessed a horrible massacre of the Native People. Totally disillusioned, he sailed for Spain the next year, and in 1515 he presented the case of the Native People to the Council of the Indies. For two years de Las Casas pleaded the cause of the conquered people and asked that the king stop the senseless violence. King Ferdinand, wishing to avoid the entire situation, sent de Las Casas back to Hispaniola with the title "Protector of the Indians" and with a great many laws to rectify the matter. It soon became clear to Bartholomew that laws without backing were futile words. So in less than a year, de Las Casas was sailing back to Spain to ask for support for the laws he had been given.

107 More disheartened, Bartholomew returned to Hispaniola and in 1522, freed his own slaves..
Since traffic in slavery was then a common practice through out the world, de Las Casas at first endorsed the importing of Africans slaves to the colonies, but quickly repented of his decision.

108 Prayer to Bartholomew de Las Casas
Righteous God, You filled Bartholomew with a zeal for justice for the Native People of the New World. Help us to be people of justice, ready to defend the rights of the poor, neglected and displaced peoples of our world. Give us Your grace so that we may create a New World Order of peace and justice for all. We ask this prayer through our Lord Jesus Christ Your Son, our Lord, who lives and reigns with you in the unity of the Holy Spirit, God forever and ever. Amen

109 Father Junipero Serra (1713-1784)
Father Junipero Serra (Miguel Jose Serra) was one of the most important Spanish missionaries in the New World. In 1769 he established a mission at the present site of San Diego, California, the first of a number that would include San Antonio, San Buenaventura, San Carlos, San Francisco de Assisi, San Gabriel, San Juan Capistrano, San Luis Obispo, and Santa Clara. Serra was uncompromising in his zeal to convert the Indians to Christianity and to make his missions self sufficient. Inhabitants built their own homes, spun wool for garments, and pursued careers as masons, carpenters, blacksmiths, and millers; thousands of barrels of grain were kept in reserve supply, and herds of cattle, sheep, horses, and swine were maintained.

110 Serra founded the following missions:
LOWER CALIFORNIA Serra was president of the following missions. (all founded by the Jesuits) Nuestra Señora de Loreto San Francisco Xavier Santa Rosalía de Mulegé San José de Comondú La Purísima Concepción de María Cadegomó Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe Santiago de las Coras Nuestra Señora de los Dolores San Ignacio San José del Cabo Todos Santos San Luís Gonzaga Santa Gertrudis San Francisco de Borja Santa María de Los Angeles UPPER CALIFORNIA Serra was responsible for the founding of the first nine missions. 1) San Diego de Alcalá 2) San Carlos Borromeo 3) San Antonio de Padua 4) San Gabriel Arcángel 5) San Luís Obispo de Tolosa 6) San Francisco de Asís 7) San Juan Capistrano 8) Santa Clara de Asís 9) San Buenaventura


112 Treaty of Tordesillas Papal Line of Demarcation 1494
Upon returning to Spain in 1493 after his first voyage, Christopher Columbus contacted Pope Alexander VI (a Spaniard by birth) to report his discoveries. Acting as the great European arbiter of the day, the pope then issued a bull (decree) that divided the New World lands between Spain and Portugal by establishing a north-south line of demarcation 100 leagues* west of the Cape Verde Islands. Undiscovered non-Christian lands to the west of the line were to be Spanish possessions and those to the east belonged to Portugal. News of this decision was not warmly greeted by the Portuguese, who argued that previous agreements conflicted with the pope's decision. In the spring of 1494, representatives of Spain and Portugal met in the Spanish town of Tordesillas and negotiated a mutually satisfactory solution to their dispute. The line of demarcation was relocated to a position 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands. (It was impossible during this age to determine precisely the impact of this agreement on account of the nagging difficulty of establishing longitude accurately.) However, Portugal emerged with an enhanced position by gaining a larger portion of South America (Brazil). Even with this modification, Spain had gained control (on paper) of most of the New World. The pope granted his official recognition of this agreement in Spain and Portugal, with a few exceptions, remained loyal to the terms of the treaty; the Portuguese would expand deep into Brazil beyond the demarcation line, but Spain did not object. The natives of these regions, needless to say, were not consulted about the assignment of their homelands to others and competing powers in Europe totally ignored the line. For years following 1494, the Spanish lamented their consent to the treaty, convinced that they had received the short end of the stick. Their initial discoveries in the New World yielded little mineral wealth, but much disease and discomfort. Their evaluation of this bargain with Portugal changed dramatically in the 1520s as the riches from Aztec Mexico began to be exploited. Treaty of Tordesillas Papal Line of Demarcation 1494

113 What? Treaty between Spain and Portugal Divided New lands
Native people had no say

114 Why? intended to resolve the dispute: Christopher Columbus & New lands
1481 : land south of the Canary Islands to Portugal. 1493 : Pope Alexander VI west of the Cape Verde Islands should belong to Spain, Portugal unmentioned territory under Christian rule remain Another in 1493 gave all mainland's and islands then belonging to India to Spain The Portuguese King John II :prevented him from possessing India, Negotiate with King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain to move the line to the west Treaty established

115 Anti-Meridian “line of demarcation” did not encircle Earth=first come first serve Portugal-- Moluccas in 1512 Spain 1518 argue: Treaty of Tordesillas divided the Earth into two equal hemispheres 1529 Treaty of Saragossa (or Zaragoza) Spain relinquish claims of Moluccas by payment of 350,000 gold coins

116 …Where? 46°W 142°E Sign Treaty Put the line of demarcation on the map


118 The Other European Explorers: Holland “Netherlands”

119 HUDSON, HENRY Henry Hudson ( ) was an English explorer and navigator who explored parts of the Arctic Ocean and northeastern North America. The Hudson River, Hudson Strait, and Hudson Bay are named for Hudson



122 New Netherland Settled along the Hudson River around what is now New York Established a busy port. The Dutch and French became rivals in the fur trade. The Rivals established alliances with Native tribes, thus increasing warfare among the Indians, French, Dutch, and English.

123 1st century AD Chinese invent the first compass. 120 AD Ptolemy creates the first flat map of the world 982 Eric the Red discovers Greenland 1002 Leif Erickson discovers North America. Marco Polo goes to China. 1450 Prince Henry the Navigator builds school for sailors. 1487 Bartholomeu Dias discovers the southern tip of Africa. 1492 Columbus sails to the New World. 1497 John Cabot discovers Newfoundland while he searches for the Northwest Passage 1502 Amerigo Vespucci returns from his explorations of the New World.  American continents named after him by German mapmaker. 1513 .Vasco Nunez de Balboa discovers the eastern shore of the Pacific Ocean.  Juan Ponce de Leon searches for the Fountain of Youth in Florida. 1519 – 1522 Ferdinand Magellan and his crew sail around the world. 1521 Hernando Cortez defeats the Aztec Empire. 1533 Francisco Pizarro defeats the Inca Empire 1534 Jacques Cartier discovers the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes 1539 – 1542 Hernando De Soto explores the southeastern United States 1540 Francisco Vasquez de Coronado explores the southwestern United States and discovers the Grand Canyon. 1577 Sir Francis Drake becomes the first Englishman to sail around the world.

124 Explorers to the New World
1539 – 1542 Hernando De Soto explores the southeastern United States. 1540 Francisco Vasquez de Coronado explores the southwestern United States and discovers the Grand Canyon. 1577 Sir Francis Drake becomes the first Englishman to sail around the world. 1673 Father Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet explore the Mississippi River. 1682 Rene-Robert de La Salle explores the Mississippi River from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico.

125 Explorers Date Explorer Nationality Achievement Around 1000
Leif Ericson Norse First European to reach North American Mainland Marco Polo Italian Traveled to the Far East, to what was known then as Cathay or China-Made men want to travel there through his book Prince Henry Portuguese Created navigation school in Sagres, Portugal Explored the western African coastline Bartholomeu Dias First European to round the Cape of Good Hope Christopher Columbus Made 4 voyages to West Indies and Caribbean Islands Amerigo Vespucci Sailed to West Indies and South America John Cabot Explored the shores of Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and Labrador 1498 Vasco Da Gama First to travel to West Indies around Africa 1513 Vasco de Balboa Spanish Led expedition across Panama and found the Pacific Ocean Juan Ponce de Leon Explored Florida looking for the Fountain of Youth

126 Ferdinand Magellan Portuguese Commanded first globe circling voyage Hernando Cortez Spanish Conquered Aztecs in Mexico 1523 Giovanni da Verranzano Italian Searched for a Northwest Passage Francisco Pizarro Conquered Peru Jacques Cartier French Traveled St. Lawrence River Hernando De Soto Explored American Southeast-Discovered the Mississippi River Francisco Vazquez de Coronado Explored American Southwest Sir Frances Drake English First English to sail around the world-Defeated the Spanish Armada- Claimed California for England Samuel de Champlain Explored eastern coast of North America and the coast of the St. Lawrence River to Lake Huron-Reached Lake Champlain Henry Hudson Explored Hudson Bay, Hudson River, and Hudson Strait 1672 Marquette and Louis Joliet Explored Northern  Mississippi River 1682 Robert LaSalle Traveled to the mouth of the Mississippi River and claimed it for France

127 Colonizing North America
Search for the Northwest Passage

128 Rivalries Among European Nations
The Protestant Reformation in 1500s divided Europe Europeans settling in the Americas brought their rivalries with them (Example: Sir Francis Drake)

129 Migration to the New World
Pull effects Economic Opportunity Religious Freedom Push effects Wars of Religion Religious Persecution

130 The Slave Migration Africans who were brought to the new world paraticpated in an involuntary migration About 10,000,000 Africans were removed from Africa and sent to the new world About 4,000,000 survived the crossing and were established in the new world settlements

131 The Slave Trade Europeans began to use slave labor in their colonies to grow crops, mine, etc. Native Americans used for a while, but Africans began to be brought to the Americas. The slave trade then became the main focus of Europe’s relations with Africa.


133 Role of Calvinism in Migration
The reasons Religious persecutions 30 years war Expulsion of Huguenots from France The Colonies Plymouth (Pilgrims) Mass Bay (Puritans) New Amsterdam (Dutch and German Calvinist plus French Huguenots

134 Signing the Mayflower Compact

135 The impact of trade on Colonization
The Triangle Trade English and French Mercantilism Established pattern of trade which included the importation of slaves to the new world. Lead to the idea that economic opportunity could be found in the new world Increased the number of people migrating to the new world for work as indentured servants

136 What was the Triangular Trade?
System of trade between Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Stage 1: Raw materials to Europe (tobacco, rum, sugar) Stage 2: Manufactured goods to Africa (guns, cloth, rum) Stage 3: Slaves to the Americas to make raw materials.

137 The Triangular Trade

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